Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomy & Inventories
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Taxonomy & Inventories
Updating the knowledge of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Rondônia State, Brazil
expand article infoAntonio Marques Pereira Júnior‡,§, Moreno Magalhães de Souza Rodrigues, Jansen Fernandes Medeiros‡,§
‡ Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz Rondônia, Porto Velho, Brazil
§ Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Epidemiologia da Amazônia Ocidental, Porto Velho, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Sandflies are insects important for the transmission cycles of the leishmaniases. Despite being studied since the 1960s in the State of Rondônia (Brazil), several gaps exist regarding our working knowledge of these insects. This study aimed to construct an up-to-date database of sandflies using complementary information from the speciesLink database and the scientific literature, as well as to elaborate integrated abundance maps. We identified 153,155 records of sandflies captured in Rondônia between 1965-2021; after exclusion, 147,258 reports (speciesLink - 3,408, Rondônia studies – 143,850) associated with 15 genera and 140 species were mapped. The most abundant species observed were Psychodopygus davisi (Root, 1934) (43,818 records), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (12,594), Psychodopygus carrerai (Barretto, 1946) (11,840), Psychodopygus hirsutus (Mangabeira, 1942) (9,676), Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho, 1939) (8,847), Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira, 1942) (5,505), Psychodopygus geniculatus (Mangabeira, 1941) (4,644), Pintomyia nevesi (Damasceno & Arouck, 1956) (4,140), Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira, 1942) (3,579), Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira, 1941) (2,659), Nyssomyia fraihai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1979) (2,504) and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira, 1942) (1,418). A total of 20 records of Leishmania detection corresponded to eight sand fly species. The present dataset provides updated information on the distribution of sandflies of Rondônia, including those considered potential vectors of Leishmania, which should prove useful to guide future studies.

New information

The present study provides an extensive dataset built from all studies reporting phlebotomine sandflies in the Brazilian State of Rondônia. Online distribution maps can aid scientists who wish to consult the updated list of sand fly species and view the distribution of these insects, as well as those considered potential vectors of Leishmania. The results of the present study can serve as the basis for future studies on sandflies conducted in the State.

Keywords

Phlebotominae, leishmaniasis, vectors, distribution, dataset

Introduction

Sand flies are small dipteran insects mainly known for their role as vectors in the cycle of leishmaniasis transmission (Bates et al. 2015). In light of this importance, efforts to learn more about these insects have led to increasing amounts of data on the diversity, ecology, biology and genetics of these insects (Bates et al. 2015, Costa et al. 2021b). Sandflies are a diverse species found worldwide, with approximately 1,050 species described; Brazil is home to the greatest number of species, with 286 classifications registered (Galati 2021). Most of the knowledge gained has resulted from specialised training, which has greatly contributed to the diversity of the accumulated data.

Many regions in Brazil possess unexplored knowledge about these insects and it is highly possible that significant diversity remains to be discovered. Expanding the existing body of knowledge on these insects is important considering the role that sandflies play in the transmission of pathogens (Bates et al. 2015). Therefore, a robust dataset on the composition of these fauna could contribute to our understanding of main species in specific locales, as well as to potential vectors in a given region, constituting the first step for specific studies to identify the biological characteristics of regional species.

The Brazilian State of Rondônia, located in the Amazon Basin, borders the States of Acre, Amazonas and Mato Grosso and shares an international frontier with Bolivia. The State has the third highest incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in northern Brazil, with approximately 15,000 cases registered between 2007 and 2020. According to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, this incidence rate results from intense zoonotic transmission associated with human occupation in transmission foci (Teles et al. 2013, DATASUS 2020, Almeida et al. 2021). Previous studies have demonstrated that the following Leishmania species are responsible for human cases of CL in Rondônia: Leishmania amazonensis Lainson & Shaw, 1972, Leishmania braziliensis Vianna, 1911, Leishmania guyanensis Floch, 1954, Leishmania lainsoni Silveira, Ishikawa, Souza & Lainson, 1987, Leishmania lindenbergi Silveira, Ishikawa & Sousa, 2002, Leishmania naiffi Lainson & Shaw, 1989 and Leishmania shawi Lainson, Braga, Souza, Póvoa & Ishikawa, 1989 (Cantanhêde et al. 2015, Fagundes-Silva et al. 2015, Cantanhêde et al. 2019). However, despite the high prevalence of CL, knowledge on specific regional characteristics of the disease, including Leishmania species, reservoirs and vector species, remains incipient.

The first studies on sandflies were conducted in Rondônia in the 1960s (Martins et al. 1965). While some have been published in later decades, only from the 2000s has there been a substantial increase in accumulated data on sandflies (Gil et al. 2003, Gil et al. 2009, Teles et al. 2013, Galardo et al. 2015, Ogawa et al. 2016, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Torchitte et al. 2020, Costa et al. 2021a, Silva et al. 2021). Nonetheless, studies describing vector distribution in the State are lacking. Accordingly, the present study aimed to build a database to provide an updated registry of sandflies and their potential vectors in Rondônia, in order to aid both specialists and non-specialists who work in the region.

Materials and methods

Study Area

Rondônia, located in the western part of the Amazon Basin, is third in terms of territorial extension amongst the States in the north of Brazil. The State covers an area of 237576 km2 and has a population of 1,815,278 inhabitants throughout its 52 municipalities; it shares borders with Bolivia and the neighbouring States of Acre, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. The local climate is tropical, with annual average temperatures varying between 19.2 and 26.6°C. The dominant vegetation is dense ombrophilous forest (Amazon tropical forest), yet Rondônia has experienced a decrease in vegetal cover over the last 40 years (Fearnside 2014). Moreover, an increasing incidence of CL cases has been associated with anthropogenic activities conducted in or near forest environments (Almeida et al. 2021b).

Data distribution

We analysed data produced by zoological collections, such as the Phlebotomine Collection - Fiocruz/COLFLEB and Invertebrates Collection/INPA. These data are freely available on speciesLink (splink.cria.org.br/), a distributed information system that combines primary data from scientific collections. We also searched the scientific literature for all studies containing taxonomic and geographic information on sand fly species collected in Rondônia. The collected information consisted of total specimens and accompanying location coordinates in decimal format (long., lat.) to construct regional maps.

Distribution maps, constructed using QGIS3.4, revealed the most abundant species across the municipalities in Rondônia, with species abundance distributed in up to five classes: (i) 1-100 individuals, (ii) 101-500 individuals, (iii) 501-1000 individuals, (iv) 1001-2000 individuals and (v) > 2001 individuals. Data on Leishmania infection in each sand fly species were also compiled to build occurrence maps of potential vectors in the State. Finally, we constructed a web server with python applications containing information on the distribution of all species recorded throughout the State’s municipalities: https://sandfliesdb.herokuapp.com/.

Updated list of sand flies from Rondônia State, Brazil

Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Bichromomyia inornata (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1965)

Distribution: 
Guajará-Mirim
Notes: 

Martins et al. 1965

Bichromomyia olmeca nociva (Young & Arias, 1982)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Costa Marques, Machadinho d'Oeste, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018

Bichromomyia reducta (Feliciangeli, Ramirez Pérez & Ramirez, 1988)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Ogawa et al. 2016, Resadore et al. 2017, Silva et al. 2021

Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Monte Negro
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003

Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Brumptomyia cunhai (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003

Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock, 1962

Distribution: 
Nova Mamoré, São Francisco do Guaporé
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b

Brumptomyia pentacantha (Barretto, 1947)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Guajará-Mirim, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Martins et al. 1965, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Brumptomyia pintoi (Costa Lima, 1932)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Gil et al. 2003, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b

Brumptomyia travassosi (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003

Evandromyia andersoni (Le Pont & Desjeux, 1988)

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste
Notes: 

Leão et al. 2020

Evandromyia apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, 2013

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Leão et al. 2020, Silva et al. 2021

Evandromyia bacula (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1965)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Evandromyia begonae (Ortiz & Torrez, 1975)

Distribution: 

Cacaulândia, Porto Velho

Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003

Evandromyia brachyphalla (Mangabeira, 1941)

Distribution: 
Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Ogawa et al. 2016

Evandromyia carmelinoi (Ryan, Fraiha, Lainson & Shaw, 1986)

Distribution: 
Pimenta Bueno
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a

Evandromyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes, 1936)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003

Evandromyia georgii (Freitas & Barrett, 2002)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021

Evandromyia infraspinosa (Mangabeira, 1941)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Teles et al. 2013

Evandromyia inpai (Young & Arias, 1977)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003

Evandromyia lenti (Mangabeira, 1938)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Evandromyia monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari

Evandromyia pinottii (Damasceno & Arouck, 1956)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015

Evandromyia piperiformis Godoy, Cunha & Galati, 2017

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Costa Marques, Machadinho d'Oeste, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021

Evandromyia saulensis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Torchitte et al. 2020

Evandromyia sericea (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Itapuã do Oeste, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Silva et al. 2021

Evandromyia sp. de Baduel (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945)

Distribution: 
Guajará-Mirim
Notes: 

Martins et al. 1965

Evandromyia tarapacaensis (Le Pont, Torrez-Espejo & Galati, 1997)

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1964)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2016

Evandromyia walkeri (Newstead, 1914)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Evandromyia williamsi (Damasceno, Causey & Arouck, 1945)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Evandromyia wilsoni (Damasceno & Causey, 1945)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Lutzomyia caligata Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1965

Distribution: 
Guajará-Mirim
Notes: 

Martins et al. 1965

Lutzomyia carvalhoi (Damasceno, Causey & Arouck, 1945)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003

Lutzomyia evangelistai Martins & Fraiha, 1971

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Gil et al. 2003, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Lutzomyia falcata Young, Morales & Ferro, 1994

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Resadore et al. 2017

Lutzomyia flabellata Martins & Silva, 1964

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018

Lutzomyia gomezi (Nitzulescu, 1931)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Gil et al. 2003, Martins et al. 1965, Silva et al. 2021

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Monte Negro
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Teles et al. 2013

Lutzomyia marinkellei Young, 1979

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste
Notes: 

Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b

Lutzomyia sherlocki Martins, Silva & Falcão, 1971

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Martinsmyia waltoni (Arias, Freitas & Barrett, 1984)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Monte Negro
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b

Micropygomyia acanthopharynx (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1962)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Monte Negro
Notes: 

Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Teles et al. 2013

Micropygomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1941)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Castellón Bermúdez 2009

Micropygomyia echinatopharynx Andrade Filho, Galati, Andrade & Facão, 2004

Distribution: 
Costa Marques
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a

Micropygomyia longipennis (Barretto, 1946)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Resadore et al. 2018

Micropygomyia micropyga (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Martins et al. 1965, Resadore et al. 2018, Teles et al. 2013

Micropygomyia oswaldoi (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003

Micropygomyia peresi (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Itapuã do Oeste
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020

Micropygomyia pilosa (Damasceno & Causey, 1944)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b

Micropygomyia rorotaensis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Torchitte et al. 2020

Micropygomyia trinidadensis (Newstead, 1922)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018

Micropygomyia villelai (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021b, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Migonemyia cerqueirai (Causey & Damasceno, 1945)

Distribution: 
Guajará-Mirim
Notes: 

Martins et al. 1965

Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Torchitte et al. 2020

Nyssomyia anduzei (Rozeboom, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018

Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho, 1939)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Nyssomyia delsionatali Galati & Galvis, 2012

Distribution: 

Cacoal, Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari, Vilhena

Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021

Nyssomyia fraihai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1979)

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste, Machadinho d'Oeste, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 
Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021b, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021

Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready & Fraiha, 1981)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021b, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021

Nyssomyia shawi (Fraiha, Ward & Ready, 1981)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha, 1977)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Nyssomyia urbinattii Galati & Galvis, 2012

Distribution: 
Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Pimenta Bueno, São Francisco do Guaporé
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Torchitte et al. 2020

Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Nyssomyia yuilli pajoti (Abonnenc, Léger& Fauran 1979)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015

Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (Young & Porter, 1972)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Guajará-Mirim, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003

Pintomyia damascenoi (Mangabeira, 1941)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003

Pintomyia duckei Oliveira, Alencar & Freitas, 2018

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste
Notes: 

Leão et al. 2020

Pintomyia fiocruzi Pereira-Júnior, Pessoa, Marialva & Medeiros, 2019

Distribution: 
Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Machadinho d'Oeste, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021

Pintomyia gruta (Ryan, 1986)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Ogawa et al. 2016

Pintomyia nevesi (Damasceno & Arouck, 1956)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Gil et al. 2003, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Pintomyia odax (Fairchild & Hertig, 1961)

Distribution: 
Guajará-Mirim, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Biancardi et al. 1982

Pintomyia pacae (Floch & Abonnenc, 1943)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003

Pintomyia serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Pressatia calcarata (Martins & Silva, 1964)

Distribution: 
Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Nova Mamoré
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b

Pressatia choti (Floch & Abonnenc, 1941)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015

Pressatia triacantha (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Pressatia trispinosa (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Costa Marques
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Gil et al. 2003

Psathyromyia abonnenci (Floch & Chassignet, 1947)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Resadore et al. 2018

Psathyromyia abunaensis (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1965)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Guajará-Mirim, Monte Negro, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021b, Gil et al. 2003, Martins et al. 1965, Ogawa et al. 2016, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Psathyromyia aragaoi (Costa Lima, 1932)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Psathyromyia barrettoi barretoi (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Psathyromyia bigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1941)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021b, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Psathyromyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima, 1932)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Resadore et al. 2017

Psathyromyia campbelli (Damasceno, Causey & Arouck, 1945)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psathyromyia coutinhoi (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Psathyromyia dasymera (Fairchild & Hertig, 1961)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Biancardi et al. 1982

Psathyromyia dendrophyla (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 
Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey & Damasceno, 1945)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021

Psathyromyia elizabethdorvalae Brilhante, Sábio & Galati, 2017

Distribution: 
Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Silva et al. 2021

Psathyromyia hermanlenti (Martins, Silva & Falcão, 1970)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psathyromyia inflata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015

Psathyromyia lutziana (Costa Lima, 1932)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psathyromyia pradobarrientosi (Le Pont, Matias, Martinez & Dujardin, 2004)

Distribution: 
Cacoal, Guajará-Mirim, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Silva et al. 2021, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018, Teles et al. 2013

Psathyromyia scaffi (Damasceno & Arouck, 1956)

Distribution: 
Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Ogawa et al. 2016, Silva et al. 2021

Psychodopygus amazonensis (Root, 1934)

Distribution: 

Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari

Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Psychodopygus ayrozai (Barretto & Coutinho, 1940)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Silva et al. 2021, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psychodopygus bispinosus (Fairchild & Hertig, 1951)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021b, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021

Psychodopygus carrerai (Barretto, 1946)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Candeias do Jamari, Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Grimaldi Júnior et al. 1991, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psychodopygus chagasi (Costa Lima, 1941)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psychodopygus claustrei (Abonnenc, Léger & Fauran, 1979)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira, 1941)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psychodopygus corossoniensis (Le Pont & Pajot, 1978)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003

Psychodopygus davisi (Root, 1934)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Candeias do Jamari, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Grimaldi Júnior et al. 1991, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psychodopygus francoisleponti Zapata, Depaquit & León 2012

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Silva et al. 2022

Psychodopygus geniculatus (Mangabeira,1941)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psychodopygus guyanensis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1941)

Distribution: 
Ariquemes, Ji-Paraná, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Biancardi et al. 1982

Psychodopygus hirsutus (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Psychodopygus lainsoni Fraiha & Ward, 1974

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Azevedo et al. 1993, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2015, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei Fraiha, Ryan, Ward, Lainson & Shaw, 1986

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021

Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, 1980

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021

Psychodopygus paraensis (Costa Lima, 1941)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021

Psychodopygus squamiventris (Lutz & Neiva, 1912)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015

Psychodopygus yucumensis (Le Pont, Caillard, Tibayrenc & Desjeux, 1986)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Silva et al. 2021

Sciopemyia fluviatilis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

Distribution: 
Costa Marques, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018

Sciopemyia servulolimai (Damasceno & Causey, 1945)

Distribution: 

Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari

Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte,1927)

Distribution: 

Buritis Cacaulândia Cacoal, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé, Vale do Anari

Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Sciopemyia vattierae (Le Pont & Desjeux, 1992)

Distribution: 
Costa Marques, Machadinho d'Oeste, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, São Francisco do Guaporé
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Silva et al. 2021

Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Trichophoromyia brachypyga (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo, Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Resadore et al. 2017

Trichophoromyia castanheirai (Damasceno, Causey & Arouck, 1945)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015

Trichophoromyia clitella (Young & Pérez, 1994)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013, Torchitte et al. 2020

Trichophoromyia eurypyga (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1963)

Distribution: 

Porto Velho

Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015

Trichophoromyia flochi (Abonnenc & Chassignet, 1948)

Distribution: 
Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Silva et al. 2021

Trichophoromyia ininii (Floch & Abonnenc, 1943)

Distribution: 

Guajará-Mirim

Notes: 

speciesLink 2022

Trichophoromyia loretonensis (Llanos, 1964)

Distribution: 

Itapuã do Oeste

Notes: 

Leão et al. 2020

Trichophoromyia melloi (Causey & Damasceno, 1945)

Distribution: 
Monte Negro, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Resadore et al. 2017, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Trichophoromyia octavioi (Vargas, 1949)

Distribution: 
Monte Negro, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Ogawa et al. 2016, Resadore et al. 2017, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Trichophoromyia readyi (Ryan, 1986)

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b

Trichophoromyia ruii (Arias & Young, 1982)

Distribution: 
Porto Velho
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015

Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Ji-Paraná, Machadinho d'Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Trichopygomyia dasypodogeton (Castro, 1939)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Itapuã do Oeste, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021

Trichopygomyia longispina (Mangabeira, 1942)

Distribution: 
Cacaulândia, Itapuã do Oeste
Notes: 
Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020

Trichopygomyia rondoniensis (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1965)

Distribution: 

Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Porto Velho, Vilhena

Notes: 

Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021

Trichopygomyia trichopyga (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945)

Distribution: 

Cacaulândia, Porto Velho

Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003

Trichopygomyia wagleyi (Causey & Damasceno, 1945)

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste
Notes: 

Leão et al. 2020, Resadore et al. 2018

Viannamyia furcata (Mangabeira, 1941)

Distribution: 
Buritis, Cacaulândia, Cacoal, Campo Novo, Guajará-Mirim, Itapuã do Oeste, Monte Negro, Nova Mamoré, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Costa et al. 2021a, Galardo et al. 2015, Gil et al. 2003, Leão et al. 2020, Martins et al. 1965, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021, Teles et al. 2013

Viannamyia tuberculata (Mangabeira, 1941)

Distribution: 
Itapuã do Oeste, Nova Mamoré, Porto Velho, Vale do Anari, Vilhena
Notes: 

Galardo et al. 2015, Leão et al. 2020, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Silva et al. 2021

Analysis

A total of 153,155 records of sandflies captured in Rondônia were identified between 1965 and 2021, of which 147,258 were suitable for mapping (species link: 3,408, studies conducted in Rondônia: 143,850). In all, 5,887 reports were discarded mainly due to a lack of geographic coordinates. The remaining 147,258 records were distributed into four subtribes, 15 genera and 140 sand fly species. The subtribe with the most records was Psychodopygina Galati, 1995 with 132,138 records and 68 species, followed by Lutzomyiina Abonnenc & Leger, 1976 (12,534 records – 54 species), Sergentomyiina Galati, 2003 (2,296 records - 11 species) and Brumptomyiina Galati, 2003 (290 records - 7 species) (Table 1).

Table 1.

Records of sandflies in Rondônia state obtained from scientific literature and speciesLink.

Brumptomyiina Galati, 2003 (7 species)

N

Brumptomyiina Galati, 2003 (7 species)

N

Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932)

39

Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock, 1962

2

Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920)

97

Brumptomyia pentacantha (Barretto, 1947)

8

Brumptomyia cunhai (Mangabeira, 1942)

4

Brumptomyia pintoi (Costa Lima, 1932)

18

Brumptomyia travassosi (Mangabeira, 1942)

122

Lutzomyiina Abonnenc & Leger, 1976 (54 species)

N

Lutzomyiina Abonnenc & Leger, 1976 (54 species)

N

Evandromyia andersoni (Le Pont & Desjeux, 1988)

1

Lutzomyia gomezi (Nitzulescu, 1931)

459

Evandromyia apurinan Shimabukuro, Figueira & Silva, 2013

12

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912)

47

Evandromyia bacula (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1965)

307

Lutzomyia marinkellei Young, 1979

7

Evandromyia begonae (Ortiz & Torrez, 1975)

12

Lutzomyia sherlocki Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1971

729

Evandromyia brachyphalla (Mangabeira, 1941)

9

Migonemyia cerqueirai (Causey & Damasceno, 1945)

2

Evandromyia carmelinoi (Ryan, Lainson, Fraiha & Shaw, 1986)

1

Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920)

331

Evandromyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes, 1936)

19

Pintomyia damascenoi (Mangabeira, 1941)

23

Evandromyia georgii Freitas & Barrett, 2002

286

Pintomyia duckei Oliveira, Alencar & Freitas, 2018

8

Evandromyia infraspinosa (Mangabeira, 1941)

263

Pintomyia fiocruzi Pereira Júnior, Pessoa, Marialva & Medeiros, 2019

34

Evandromyia inpai (Young & Arias, 1977)

2

Pintomyia gruta (Ryan, 1986)

12

Evandromyia lenti (Mangabeira, 1938)

11

Pintomyia nevesi (Damasceno & Arouck, 1956)

4140

Evandromyia monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

42

Pintomyia odax (Fairchild & Hertig, 1961)

1

Evandromyia pinottii (Damasceno & Arouck, 1956)

4

Pintomyia pacae (Floch & Abonnenc, 1943)

1

Evandromyia piperiformis Godoy, Cunha & Galati, 2017

21

Pintomyia serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949)

308

Evandromyia saulensis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

467

Pressatia calcarata (Martins & Silva, 1964)

15

Evandromyia sericea (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

8

Pressatia choti (Floch & Abonnenc, 1941)

89

Evandromyia sp. de Baduel (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945)

1

Pressatia triacantha (Mangabeira, 1942)

984

Evandromyia tarapacaensis (Le Pont, Torrez-Espejo & Galati, 1997)

373

Pressatia trispinosa (Mangabeira, 1942)

80

Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1964)

102

Sciopemyia fluviatilis (Flochi & Abonnenc, 1944)

69

Evandromyia walkeri (Newstead, 1914)

194

Sciopemyia servulolimai (Damasceno & Causey, 1945)

123

Evandromyia williamsi (Damasceno, Causey & Arouck, 1945)

22

Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927)

1349

Evandromyia wilsoni (Damasceno & Causey, 1945)

461

Sciopemyia vattierae (Le Pont & Desjeux, 1992)

21

Lutzomyia caligata (Martins,Falcão & Silva, 1965)

2

Trichopygomyia dasypodogeton (Castro, 1939)

569

Lutzomyia carvalhoi (Damasceno, Causey & Arouck, 1945)

23

Trichopygomyia longispina (Mangabeira, 1942)

4

Lutzomyia evangelistai Martins & Fraiha, 1971

235

Trichopygomyia rondoniensis (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1965)

121

Lutzomyia falcata Young & Morales, 1994

2

Trichopygomyia trichopyga (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945)

73

Lutzomyia flabellata Martins & Silva, 1964

11

Trichopygomyia wagleyi (Causey & Damasceno, 1945)

45

Psychodopygina Galati, 1995 (68 species)

N

Psychodopygina Galati, 1995 (68 species)

N

Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira, 1942)

1418

Psychodopygus amazonensis (Root, 1934)

562

Bichromomyia inornata (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1965)

2

Psychodopygus ayrozai (Barretto & Coutinho, 1940)

2308

Bichromomyia olmeca nociva (Young & Arias, 1982)

14

Psychodopygus bispinosus (Fairchild & Hertig, 1951)

352

Bichromomyia reducta (Feliciangeli, Ramirez Pérez & Ramirez, 1988)

15

Psychodopygus carrerai (Barretto, 1946)

11840

Martinsmyia waltoni (Arias, Freitas & Barrett, 1984)

28

Psychodopygus chagasi (Costa Lima, 1941)

1436

Nyssomyia anduzei (Rozeboom, 1942)

219

Psychodopygus claustrei (Abonnenc, Léger & Fauran, 1979)

1827

Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho, 1939)

8847

Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira, 1941)

2659

Nyssomyia delsionatali Galati & Galvis, 2012

36

Psychodopygus corossoniensis (Le Pont & Desjeux, 1978)

652

Nyssomyia fraihai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1979)

2504

Psychodopygus davisi (Root, 1934)

43818

Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready & Fraiha, 1981)

1241

Psychodopygus francoisleponti (Zapata, Depaquit & León, 2012)

1

Nyssomyia shawi (Fraiha, Ward & Ready, 1981)

3400

Psychodopygus geniculatus (Mangabeira, 1941)

4644

Nyssomyia urbinattii Galati & Galvis, 2012

64

Psychodopygus guyanensis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1941)

3

Nyssomyia whitmani Antunes & Coutinho, 1939

12594

Psychodopygus hirsutus (Mangabeira, 1942)

9676

Nyssomyia yulli pajoti (Abonnenc, Léger & Fauran, 1979)

2

Psychodopygus lainsoni Fraiha & Ward, 1974

1117

Nyssomyia yulli yuilli (Young & Porter, 1972)

876

Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei Fraiha, Ryan, Ward, Lainson & Shaw, 1986

474

Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha, 1977)

1782

Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, 1980

428

Psathyromyia abonnenci (Floch & Chassignet, 1947)

40

Psychodopygus paraensis (Costa Lima, 1941)

111

Psathyromyia abunaensis (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1965)

12

Psychodopygus squamiventris (Lutz & Neiva, 1912)

30

Psathyromyia aragaoi (Costa Lima, 1932)

351

Psychodopygus yucumensis (Le Pont, Caillard, Tibayrenc & Desjeux, 1986)

58

Psathyromyia barrettoi (Mangabeira, 1942)

41

Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira, 1942)

3579

Psathyromyia bigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1941)

494

Trichophoromyia brachypyga (Mangabeira, 1942)

57

Psathyromyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima, 1932)

14

Trichophoromyia castanheirai (Damasceno, Causey & Arouck, 1945)

167

Psathyromyia campbelli (Damasceno, Causey & Arouck, 1945)

142

Trichophoromyia clitella (Young & Pérez, 1994)

292

Psathyromyia coutinhoi (Mangabeira, 1942)

13

Trichophoromyia eurypyga (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1963)

138

Psathyromyia dasymera (Fairchild & Hertig, 1961)

1

Trichophoromyia flochi (Abonnenc & Chassigneti, 1948)

594

Psathyromyia dendrophyla (Mangabeira, 1942)

1903

Trichophoromyia ininii (Floch & Abonnenc, 1943)

9

Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey & Damasceno, 1945)

97

Trichophoromyia loretonensis (Llanos, 1964)

8

Psathyromyia elizabethdorvalae Brilhante, Sábio & Galati, 2017

21

Trichophoromyia melloi (Causey & Damasceno, 1945)

762

Psathyromyia hermanlenti (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1970)

233

Trichophoromyia octavioi (Vargas, 1949)

487

Psathyromyia inflata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

16

Trichophoromyia readyi (Ryan, 1986)

29

Psathyromyia lutziana (Costa Lima, 1932)

268

Trichophoromyia ruii (Arias & Young, 1982)

1

Psathyromyia pradobarrientosi (Le Pont, Matias, Martinez & Dujardin, 2004)

100

Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira, 1942)

5505

Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

11

Viannamyia furcata (Mangabeira, 1941)

1310

Psathyromyia scaffi (Damasceno & Arouck, 1956)

38

Viannamyia tuberculata (Mangabeira, 1941)

367

Sergentomyiina Galati, 2003 (11 species)

N

Sergentomyiina Galati, 2003 (11 species)

N

Micropygomyia acanthopharynx (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1962)

679

Micropygomyia peresi (Mangabeira, 1942)

3

Micropygomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1941)

2

Micropygomyia pilosa (Damasceno & Causey, 1944)

9

Micropygomyia echinathopharynx Andrade Filho, Galati, Andrade & Falcão, 2004

1

Micropygomyia rorotaensis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944)

160

Micropygomyia longipennis (Barretto, 1946)

28

Micropygomyia trinidadensis (Newstead, 1922)

1133

Micropygomyia micropyga (Mangabeira, 1942)

76

Micropygomyia villelai (Mangabeira, 1942)

202

Micropygomyia oswaldoi (Mangabeira, 1942)

3

Sand fly studies were conducted in 17 of the State’s 52 municipalities, with Porto Velho being the municipality with the most collection events. Considering all of the evaluated studies, the most abundant species observed were: Psychodopygus davisi (Root, 1934) (43,818 records), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) (12,594), Psychodopygus carrerai (Barretto, 1946) (11,840), Psychodopygus hirsutus (Mangabeira, 1942) (9,676), Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho, 1939) (8,847), Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira, 1942) (5,505), Psychodopygus geniculatus (Mangabeira, 1941) (4,644), Pintomyia nevesi (Damasceno & Arouck, 1956) (4,140), Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira, 1942) (3,579), Nyssomyia shawi (Ward, Fraiha & Ready, 1981) (3400), Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira, 1941) (2,659), Nyssomyia fraihai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1979) (2,504) and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira, 1942) (1,418). These species were most commonly distributed amongst the municipalities as follows: N. whitmani (17/17), P. davisi and N. antunesi (16/17), B. flaviscutellata, P. hirsutus and T. ubiquitalis (15/17), P. nevesi, P. carrerai (13/17), N. umbratilis and P. complexus (12/17), T. auraensis (11/17), P. ayrozai (9/17) and N. fraihai (7/17) (Figs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

Figure 1.  

Distribution maps of sand fly species with high abundance in the State of Rondônia (Brazil). A) Municipalities (green) in which sandflies were reported; B) Bichromomyia flaviscutellata; C) Nyssomyia antunesi; D) Nyssomyia fraihai.

Figure 2.  

Distribution maps of sand fly species with high abundance in the State of Rondônia (Brazil). A) Municipalities (green) in which sandflies were reported; B) Nyssomyia shawi; C) Nyssomyia umbratilis; D) Nyssomyia whitmani.

Figure 3.  

Distribution maps of sand fly species with high abundance in the State of Rondônia (Brazil). A) Municipalities (green) in which sandflies were reported; B) Pintomyia nevesi; C) Psychodopygus ayrozai; D) Psychodopygus carrerai.

Figure 4.  

Distribution maps of sand fly species with high abundance in the State of Rondônia (Brazil). A) Municipalities (green) in which sandflies were reported; B) Psychodopygus complexus; C) Psychodopygus davisi; D) Psychodopygus geniculatus.

Figure 5.  

Distribution maps of sand fly species with high abundance in the State of Rondônia (Brazil). A) Municipalities (green) in which sandflies were reported; B) Psychodopygus hirsutus; C) Trichophoromyia auraensis; D) Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis.

We identified 20 records of Leishmania infection in eight sand fly species: N. antunesi, N. shawi, P. amazonensis, P. carrerai, P. chagasi, P. davisi, P. hirsutus and S. sordellii (Fig. 6). Leishmania amazonensis (n = 1) was recorded in one species in Itapuã do Oeste. Leishmania braziliensis (n = 9) was detected in five sand fly species, reported in Costa Marques, Candeias do Jamari, Itapuã do Oeste and Monte Negro. Leishmania naiffi (n = 11) was observed in five sand fly species, reported in Cacaulândia, Itapuã do Oeste and Porto Velho.

Figure 6.  

Reports of natural infection by Leishmania spp. in sand fly species; the blue asterisk represents Leishmania amazonensis; yellow squares represent Leishmania braziliensis and red crosses indicate Leishmania naiffi. A) Municipalities with reports of sandflies infected with the following Leishmania spp.; B) Nyssomyia antunesi; C) Nyssomyia shawi; D) Psychodopygus amazonensis; E) Psychodopygus carrerai; F) Psychodopygus chagasi; G) Psychodopygus davisi; H) Psychodopygus hirsutus; I) Sciopemyia sordellii.

Discussion

This study demonstrates the high diversity and distribution of sandflies, which are found in abundance in the Amazon rainforest. Although Rondônia has experienced a decrease in vegetal cover over the last 40 years (Fearnside 2014), the State still contains many conservation areas that maintain the conditions necessary to maintain assemblages, including forest fragments in which a high diversity of sandflies can be found. Considering the possibility that continued deforestation may increase the risk for increases in CL cases or even contribute to the extinction of rare species, there is a great need to explore new collection areas, mainly those not sampled, as well as to preserve areas highly impacted by deforestation.

We observed a wide species distribution amongst the evaluated municipalities, including those with Leishmania vector potential. Interestingly, L. braziliensis has been reported as the most prevalent agent in human cases recently reported in Rondônia (Cantanhêde et al. 2015, Almeida et al. 2021). Our analysis of species distribution amongst potential vectors confirmed the prevalence of L. braziliensis, but also indicates that L. naiffi also seems to be abundant. However, relatively few studies have reported natural infection by these parasites in the State, revealing low vector infection rates (Resadore et al. 2018, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b), which makes it difficult to understand the true distribution of Leishmania species in sandflies throughout Rondônia.

Considering species important for Leishmania transmission in the Amazon, we observed low abundance of B. flaviscutellata across the State’s municipalities compared to other species; one possibility for this may be that all studies conducted in Rondônia used light traps to capture sand fly fauna; however, studies have demonstrated that B. flaviscutellata is more effectively attracted to and captured by animal rodent bait than light (Lainson and Shaw 1968, Dorval et al. 2010). If this holds true for a representative sample of this species, more specific studies implementing an active search in other environments are necessary. On the other hand, this species was identified in 15/52 of the State’s municipalities. Ecological niche models have demonstrated that B. flaviscutellata is present in areas where the annual mean temperature ranges from 21 to 27.6°C and annual precipitation varies between 1,139 and 3,843 mm (Carvalho et al. 2015); therefore, Rondônia has suitable conditions for developing populations of B. flaviscutellata.

Nyssomyia antunesi is a suspected vector of L. lindenbergi with wide distribution throughout Brazil. This species was found in 16/52 municipalities in Rondônia with differing abundance (Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Silva et al. 2021). Leishmania DNA (Ogawa et al. 2016) was reported in this species and infection with L. naiffi was identified by two other studies (Leão et al. 2020, Silva et al. 2021). However, it is important to note that overlapping distribution with other recently-described species, Nyssomyia delsionatali and Nyssomyia urbinattii (Galati and Ovallos 2012), could be occurring. It has been suggested that these three species may constitute an “Antunesi complex,” as specific identification of N. antunesi and N. urbinattii females is complicated by similar genitalia. It is, therefore, plausible that misidentification may occur in areas where both species are present, necessitating further study to clarify what characteristics can enable the correct identification of females, leading to enhanced knowledge regarding the role of these species as CL vectors. Importantly, some females, classified in this complex, were recently reported to be infected with L. braziliensis DNA (Costa et al. 2021a).

Nyssomyia fraihai is a species that deserves discussion. Recent revalidation (Godoy and Galati 2016) evaluated specimens from the State of Bahia, Colombian topotypes of Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (Young & Porter, 1972), as well as specimens identified as N. yuilli yuilli from other areas of Brazil, Peru and Colombia. Morphometric analysis revealed that specimens from Brazil and Peru differed from those obtained in Colombia, mainly in terms of the parameres, which led the authors to revalidate N. fraihai. It was also concluded that the distribution of N. fraihai is cis-Andean, while N. yuilli yuilli has been found in both Andean and Trans-Andean areas, generating speculation regarding the true distribution of these species (Godoy and Galati 2016). Many studies conducted in Rondônia have reported the presence of N. yuilli yuilli in their checklists, some with high abundance (Azevedo et al. 1993, Gil et al. 2003, Galardo et al. 2015, Ogawa et al. 2016, Resadore et al. 2017, Resadore et al. 2018, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Leão et al. 2020, Costa et al. 2021a, Silva et al. 2021), leading us to revise the identification of some specimens identified in most studies; we concluded that the species were indeed N. fraihai. This observation updates the distribution of N. fraihai in Rondônia as being present in seven municipalities and raises further questions on the distribution of N. yuilli yuilli in the State.

Nyssomyia shawi was found to be in low abundance in most studies conducted in Rondônia; however, Gil et al. (2003) recorded a high abundance of this species, which is similar to two different reports in Acre State (Araujo-Pereira et al. 2021, Brilhante et al. 2021), which observed that this species is amongst the most frequent sand fly species predominantly occurring in primary forest environments. This species could be involved in the maintenance cycle of trypanosomatids, including Leishmania. Since N. shawi was found to be infected with L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis (Garcia et al. 2007, Bustamante et al. 2012), it is possible that populations of this species may participate in the transmission of Leishmania species. Although N. shawi was observed to be infected with Leishmania spp. (Ogawa et al. 2016) and L. naiffi (Silva et al. 2021) in Rondônia, in the State of Acre, it was observed to harbour trypanosomatids in its mid- and posterior gut (Brilhante et al. 2021); nonetheless, its vector role is still undefined.

Nyssomyia whitmani, a species found in abundance mainly in the central region of the State, was reported in entomological surveys carried out in the Municipalities of Ariquemes, Cacaulândia and Monte Negro (Biancardi et al. 1982, Gil et al. 2003, Gil et al. 2009, Teles et al. 2013). This species was recorded in both forest environments and in areas that have suffered human intervention (Teles et al. 2013, Teles et al. 2016). While this species is involved in the transmission of L. braziliensis in some Brazilian States, there are no reports of infection by N. whitmani in Rondônia (Arias et al. 1985, Teles et al. 2013, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Leão et al. 2020, Costa et al. 2021a, Silva et al. 2021).

Psychodopygus ayrozai was distributed across nine municipalities, with low abundance observed in eight; higher abundance was reported in the Municipality of Itapuã do Oeste. This species is cited as a highly anthropophilic sand fly species in south-eastern Brazil, with preferential feeding activity at ground level starting at dusk, extending from approximately 1700 h - 2400 h (Aguiar and Soucasaux 1984). Leishmania naiffi has been isolated and characterised from specimens of P. ayrozai, leading to speculation regarding this species’ participation in transmission (Arias et al. 1985).

Psychodopygus carrerai and P. complexus are mainly reported in well-preserved forest environments (Gil et al. 2003, Resadore et al. 2018). Although both species have been found in abundance, few reports have corroborated this observation in Rondônia (Biancardi et al. 1982, Gil et al. 2003, Teles et al. 2013). Psychodopygus carrerai has been identified with L. braziliensis in areas close to Cachoeira Samuel and Candeias do Jamari (Grimaldi Júnior et al. 1991) and this species was detected with Leishmania DNA in the Municipality of Itapuã do Oeste (Resadore et al. 2018). Psychodopygus complexus has only been linked to L. braziliensis transmission in the north-eastern State of Pará (Souza et al. 1996).

Psychodopygus hirsutus is widely distributed across seven South American countries (Colombia, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil) (Galati 2021). This sand fly species is present in all Brazilian States, with the exception of those in the south (Galati 2021). While broad distribution of P. hirsutus is notable in Rondônia, few studies have reported this species in abundance (Torchitte et al. 2020, Silva et al. 2021). Females were observed to be infected with promastigotes identified as L. naiffi in the State’s central region (Gil et al. 2003), as well in some rural locations of Porto Velho, where the DNA of this Leishmania species was detected (Silva et al. 2021); however, another study reported females infected with L. braziliensis DNA (Costa et al. 2021a), reinforcing the possibility of the vector role of this sand fly species in the maintenance of Leishmania.

Psychodopygus davisi is the species most widely distributed throughout Rondônia and most studies have reported this species in abundance—our database shows this species as present in 16 municipalities. We identified many studies detecting Leishmania infection, with this species probably being the main vector of this protozoan in the State. Natural infection was detected by PCR from females collected in the Municipality of Monte Negro, identified through sequencing as L. braziliensis (Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b). Psychodopygus davisi females were visualised with promastigotes identified as L. braziliensis (Grimaldi Júnior et al. 1991) and L. naiffi (Gil et al. 2003) in the State’s central region and this species was also detected together with L. naiffi in Porto Velho (Silva et al. 2021). Other females were recently identified with DNA from Leishmania amazonensis by PCR (Resadore et al. 2018). This species has already been detected with Leishmania DNA in other locations in the State of Amazonas: Lábrea (Silva et al. 2014) and Tefé (Pereira Júnior et al. 2015). Psychodopygus davisi specimens were found to harbour DNA from L. braziliensis in Rio Branco, Acre (Ávila et al. 2018) and DNA from L. guyanensis in Assis Brasil, Acre, while other samples, classified as either L. guyanensis or L. braziliensis (Teles et al. 2016) have been found.

Although Pintomyia nevesi was found to be well-distributed in Rondônia and present in 13 municipalities, no studies reported the detection of Leishmania DNA (Gil et al. 2003, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Leão et al. 2020, Costa et al. 2021a, Silva et al. 2021). Nonetheless, this species was detected with L. braziliensis DNA in Acre, suggesting the vector potential of this species (Ávila et al. 2018).

Trichophoromyia auraensis and T. ubiquitalis are likely Leishmania vectors in Rondônia (Santos and Silveira 2020). Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis has already been detected with Leishmania DNA in the Municipality of Porto Velho (Ogawa et al. 2016, Resadore et al. 2017). This species was observed to be infected with Leishmania DNA in the neighbouring areas of Lábrea, Amazonas (Silva et al. 2014) and with Leishmania lainsoni DNA in the Municipality of Tefé, Amazonas (Pereira Júnior et al. 2015). Trichophoromyia auraensis has been reported in abundance in the Municipality of Guajará-Mirim and in municipalities located in the central region of the State (Buritis, Cacaulândia, Campo Novo and Monte Negro), as well as in Porto Velho (Biancardi et al. 1982, Gil et al. 2003, Ogawa et al. 2016, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a). In addition, some specimens were detected with Leishmania DNA in Porto Velho (Ogawa et al. 2016) and Itapuã do Oeste (Resadore et al. 2018). Silva et al. (2021) observed Trichophoromyia spp. females infected with L. naiffi, which could not be identified on a species level due to morphological similarity; however, due to the collection of T. auraensis males, the authors suggested the possibility of some females also being T. auraensis. This species has also been considered abundant in studies carried out in the State of Acre, with presence reported in both forest and peri-domiciliary environments (Teles et al. 2016, Araujo-Pereira et al. 2017, Ávila et al. 2018) and Leishmania DNA documented in the Municipalities of Assis Brasil (Teles et al. 2016) and Rio Branco/AC (Araujo-Pereira et al. 2017).

Amongst all reports of species identified in Rondônia, we expostulate that some were incorrectly classified in the State: Bichromomyia inornata, Evandromyia sp. de Baduel, Micropygomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch & Abonnenc, 1941), N. yuilli yuilli (already cited), Pintomyia odax (Fairchild & Hertig, 1961), Psathyromyia runoides and Psathyromyia shannoni. However, further taxonomic study is required to definitively confirm this speculation.

The original description of Bichromomyia inornata, by Martins et al. (1965), is the only report of this species in the State. Distribution has been reported in Bolivia, as well as in the Brazilian States of Amazonas, Rondônia and Maranhão (Galati 2021). The species was originally described as having a dark scutellum, the same colour as the mesonotum; however, when examining the holotype, Galati characterised this structure as transparent, differently from the mesonotum, which was reportedly indistinguishable from B. flaviscutellata (Galati 2021). While the possibility exists that the species found in Rondônia is indeed B. flaviscutellata, further study is needed to confirm the taxonomic status of this species.

Evandromyia sp. de Baduel has only been recorded in two studies (Martins et al. 1965, Biancardi et al. 1982). Reports in Rondônia may have confused it with other species, such as Evandromyia andersoni males or Evandromyia bacula females (Galati 2021). Although a study reported the occurrence of Micropygomyia cayennensis cayennensis in the State (Castellón Bermúdez 2009), this was likely incorrectly identified, as the original description cited (Gil et al. 2003) contains no reference to this species. The original report of Pintomyia odax (Biancardi et al. 1982) is probably a misidentification of Pintomyia fiocruzi (Pereira Júnior et al. 2019a), as the latter species was not described when P. odax was first reported in the State. Psathyromyia runoides has been cited in seven studies in Rondônia (Martins et al. 1965, Biancardi et al. 1982, Gil et al. 2003, Resadore et al. 2017, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Torchitte et al. 2020). A later study that evaluated morphological and molecular evidence suggested that all specimens, in fact, belonged to Psathyromyia pradobarrientosi, a species very similarly to P. runoides, leading these authors to speculate that P. runoides is not distributed in Rondônia (Costa et al. 2021b).

Psathyromyia shannoni is reportedly widely distributed throughout the Americas, yet this has been refuted by evidence of misidentification (Sábio et al. 2014). While some studies in Rondônia have reported the identification of this species (Martins et al. 1965, Biancardi et al. 1982, Azevedo et al. 1993, Gil et al. 2003, Gil et al. 2009), it is likely that these reports could have corresponded to Psathyromyia bigeniculata, a species of the Shannoni series that has been identified by our group (Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Leão et al. 2020, Costa et al. 2021b). Molecular studies suggest the possibility that this species belongs to a cryptic species complex (Florin et al. 2011).

Other species require further taxonomic study due to the possibility of misidentification arising from morphological discrepancies, such as members of Guyanensis series: Psychodopygus corossoniensis, Psychodopygus guyanensis and Psychodopygus geniculatus. Several populations of this series collected for molecular and morphological study in Ecuador resulted in the identification of P. geniculatus, Psychodopygus luisleoni Leon, Mollinedo & Le Pont, 2009 and P. corossoniensis. Two populations were observed within P. geniculatus and one was described as a new species, Psychodopygus francoisleponti (Zapata et al. 2012). Although this species was recently recorded in Rondônia (Silva et al. 2022), our group identified some differences when analysing specimens classified as P. geniculatus (Resadore et al. 2018, Pereira Júnior et al. 2019b, Torchitte et al. 2020). We, therefore, suggest that future taxonomic studies clarify whether these specimens are, indeed, correctly classified, since a study conducted in Ecuador resulted in the reclassification of specimens in the Guyanensis series (Zapata et al. 2012).

Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908, has rarely been reported in Rondônia, which could be explained by some factors. Many studies have demonstrated that the sylvatic distribution of this species could be restricted in accordance with its populational structure. Moreover, many studies have shown that light traps are not considered an ideal method for capturing this species, necessitating the addition of pheromones or active search to obtain higher numbers of specimens (González et al. 2020). Nevertheless, this species remains important, as cases of VL in humans tend to follow reports of canine VL in Rondônia.

The information evaluated in our study permitted a wide-ranging review of accumulated reports on sand flies over many years, thus enabling the construction of a robust database with information on these insects in the State of Rondônia. Our study was limited by the exclusion of some records from the database due to the inaccurate reporting of coordinates, which may have affected the presently-described distributions of some species. Nevertheless, we believe that the maps produced by this study could serve as reference to guide future studies investigating sand fly species in Rondônia.

Acknowledgements

The author AMPJ received a scholarship from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Financial code 001. JFM received a scholarship from the CNPq - Chamada 06/2019 - Bolsas de Produtividade em Pesquisa - Financial code 303252/2019-7. We also give thanks to Fundação Rondônia de Amparo ao Desenvolvimento das Ações Científicas e Tecnológicas e à Pesquisa do Estado de Rondônia (FAPERO) - Chamada 012/2016 – Diversidade Genética de Flebotomíneos no Estado de Rondônia e Avaliação dos Ciclos de Transmissão de Leishmanioses. This study was supported in part by Fiotec under PROGRAMA DE EXCELÊNCIA EM PESQUISA DA FIOCRUZ RONDÔNIA – PROEP (N 008-FIO-21-2-10).

Author contributions

Conceptualisation: AMPJ, JFM

Methodology: MMSR, AMPJ.

Validation: AMPJ, MMSR, JFM.

Data curation: AMPJ, MMSR, JFM.

Writing - original draft: AMPJ, MMSR, JFM.

Writing - review & editing: AMPJ, MMSR, JFM.

References