Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
SLAM Project - Long Term Ecological Study of the Impacts of Climate Change in the natural forest of Azores: VI - Inventory of Arthropods of Azorean Urban Gardens
expand article infoLucas Lamelas-Lopez, Rosalina Gabriel, Alejandra Ros-Prieto, Paulo A. V. Borges‡,§
‡ cE3c- Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Azorean Biodiversity Group, CHANGE – Global Change and Sustainability Institute, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Environment, University of the Azores, Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze, 9700-042, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal
§ IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Island Invertebrate Specialist Group, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The data we present are part of the long-term project SLAM (Long Term Ecological Study of the Impacts of Climate Change in the natural forest of Azores) aiming to assess the impact of biodiversity erosion drivers on Azorean native biota, using long-term ecological data. Additionally to SLAM (Sea, Land and Air Malaise) traps, nocturnal Active Aerial Searching and nocturnal Foliage Beating methods were used to sample, between 2017 and 2018, the arthropod biodiversity on two historical urban gardens of Azores, the “Jardim Botânico” of Faial Island and “Jardim Duque da Terceira” of Terceira Island.

New information

We provided an inventory of arthropods collected between 2017 and 2018 in two urban gardens of Faial and Terceira Islands (Azores). A total of 8342 specimens were collected, in which 7493 specimens were identified to species/subspecies level (Faial n = 3296; Terceira n = 4197). The identified specimens belong to four classes, 15 orders, 80 families and 159 species and subspecies of arthropods. A total of 84 species and subspecies are considered introduced (n = 2454 specimens), 50 native non-endemic (n = 4444 specimens), eight endemic (n = 217) and 17 have an indeterminate origin (n = 378). This study also revises the arthropod inventory of these Azorean gardens, by adding/updating the taxonomic names of three orders, ten families and 22 species.

Keywords

arthropods, biodiversity, dataset, inventory, introduced species, native species, Oceanic Islands, urban gardens

Introduction

Habitat loss, associated with landscape transformation, is one of the major causes of biodiversity loss worldwide (Diamond et al. 1989, Ntshanga et al. 2021). Particularly, the urbanisation process radically modifies the ecology of natural landscapes (Tratalos et al. 2007, Goddard et al. 2010). In addition to habitat loss, urbanisation also facilitates the introduction and establishment of exotic species and can affect the ecological interactions between local species (McKinney 2006).

In this context, urban gardens may play an important role in biodiversity conservation by provisioning a refuge for native biota and mitigating the effects of landscape fragmentation (Smith et al. 2005, Fuller et al. 2007, Goddard et al. 2010, Arteaga et al. 2020). Although the design and planning of urban gardens can affect positively native biodiversity, many urban gardens include exotic plant species that could facilitate the establishment of generalist introduced species (Matteson et al. 2008, Kowarik 2011).

This study complements the publication of Arteaga et al. (2020), which provides an inventory of arthropod diversity in Azorean urban gardens and studies the effect of plant species composition in the colonisation status of arthropods. Arteaga et al. (2020) demonstrated that, in general, arthropod communities are related with the plant species composition of gardens. More endemic and native arthropod species are found in gardens dominated by native plants, in comparison with gardens dominated by ornamental exotic plant species, where the proportion of introduced arthropods (individuals and species) was higher.

General description

Purpose: 

The main objective of this publication is to provide a recent inventory of the arthropod diversity present in two historical gardens of Azores, the “Jardim Botânico” of Faial Island and “Jardim Duque da Terceira” of Terceira Island, complementing the work of Arteaga et al. (2020). This study also updates the taxonomic inventory of Arteaga et al. (2020) and contributes to the study of the urban garden’s role in the conservation of native biodiversity.

Additional information: 

The data we present are part of the long-term project SLAM (Long Term Ecological Study of the Impacts of Climate Change in the natural forest of Azores) aiming to assess the impact of biodiversity erosion drivers on Azorean native biota, using long-term ecological data.

This is the sixth dataset contribution for this project (previous ones in Costa and Borges (2021), Borges et al. (2022b), Borges et al. (2022a), Lhoumeau et al. (2022), Lhoumeau and Borges (2022)). Another publication dedicated to Lepidoptera contributed with information about some new exotic species for Azores (Pérez Santa-Rita et al. 2018). However, in the current study, additional sampling methods were also used, to include Active Aerial Searching and nocturnal Foliage Beating (see more details below).

Project description

Title: 

Inventory of Arthropods of Azorean Urban Gardens.

Personnel: 

The project was conceived and is being led by Paulo A.V. Borges.

Fieldwork:

Terceira Island: Paulo A.V. Borges, Rosalina Gabriel, Alejandra Ros-Prieto.

Faial Island: Paulo A.V. Borges, Rosalina Gabriel, Pedro Casimiro.

Parataxonomists: Alejandra Ros-Prieto, Alba Arteaga.

Taxonomists: Paulo A. V. Borges and Luís Carlos Crespo.

Curation: Voucher specimen management was mainly undertaken by Alejandra Ros-Prieto, Alba Arteaga, Lucas Lamelas-López and Paulo A. V. Borges.

Study area description: 

The study area comprises Terceira (total area: 400.2 km²; maximum elevation: 1021 m a.s.l.) and Faial (total area: 172 km2; maximum elevation 1043 m a.s.l.) Islands. They are located in the central group of the Azores Archipelago (North Atlantic), roughly at: 38°43′40″N, 27°12′48″W (Terceira Island), and 38°34′57″N, 28°42′17″W (Faial Island). The climate of the Archipelago is temperate oceanic, characterised by regular and abundant rainfall, high levels of relative humidity and persistent winds. The landscape of the Islands is mainly dominated by urban and agricultural areas at the lowest elevations; pasturelands and exotic tree plantations inland; and native forests located at highest elevations (Gaspar et al. 2010). The study was carried out on two botanical gardens, named “Jardim Botânico”, in Faial Island and “Jardim Duque da Terceira” in Terceira Island.

The Faial Island Botanical Garden (“Jardim Botânico”) was initially implemented in 1986 with the aim to promote the conservation of the flora of the Azores (Melo 2020). Initially occupying an area of 5,600 m², it is located in the parish of Flamengos, at an altitude of 118 m (Melo 2020). Additional terrain was added in the last decades and now it occupies 15,000 m² (1.5 ha) (Melo 2020). This is currently an iconic place in Faial Island visited by many tourists. In addition to a large collection of native and endemic plants, in 2003, this Boatnical Garden created the "Azores Seed Bank", whose purpose is to collect and maintain a collection of viable seeds of all Azorean species that are possible to conserve in a conventional seed bank (Melo 2020).

The “Jardim Duque da Terceira” in Terceira Island is located in the historic centre of the main town, Angra do Heroísmo, at an altitude of 34 m. Initially occupying an area of 16,000 m² in 1882, it now occupies a larger area that reaches 2 ha (Barcelos 2012). This Garden is dominated by exotic plants, transported to the Island since the period of the Portuguese discoveries and includes both tropical and subtropical species (Barcelos 2012).

Design description: 

Passive Flight Interception traps (SLAM traps - Sea, Land and Air Malaise) (Fig. 1), nocturnal Active Aerial Searching (AAS) and nocturnal Foliage Beating (FBN) methods were used to sample the arthropod biodiversity on two historical urban gardens of Azores: the “Jardim Botânico”, located in the surroundings of Horta, in Faial Island and “Jardim Duque da Terceira” located in Angra do Heroísmo, in Terceira Island. AAS and FBN are reliable methods to collect samples of arthropods that are mainly active during the night (Borges et al. 2018). The collected specimens were preserved in ethanol 96%. SLAM traps were placed in both gardens in order to collect mainly diurnal flying and non-flying arthropods, through interception and conservation on a propylene-glycol recipient of the captured specimens (Borges et al. 2017). The SLAM traps were placed during six consecutive months and checked monthly.

Figure 1.  

SLAM trap (Sea, Land and Air Malaise trap) located in a site on Terceira Island (Credit: Paulo A. V. Borges)

Funding: 

Fieldwork: FEDER in 85% and by Azorean Public funds by 15% through Operational Programme Azores 2020, under the project Green Garden Azores (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000070).

Taxomomic work: FEDER in 85% and by Azorean Public funds by 15% through Operational Programme Azores 2020, under the project AZORESBIOPORTAL (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072) and also the project Portal da Biodiversidade dos Açores (2022-2023) - PO Azores Project - M1.1.A/INFRAEST CIENT/001/2022.

Data curation (Darwin Core): MACRISK-Trait-based prediction of extinction risk and invasiveness for Northern Macaronesian arthropods (FCT-PTDC/BIA-CBI/0625/2021).

Sampling methods

Description: 

The study was conducted on two urban gardens, the “Jardim Botânico”, located in the surroundings of Horta, in Faial Island and “Jardim Duque da Terceira” located in Angra do Heroísmo, in Terceira Island. The first is mainly composed of endemic and native plant species, but also includes some introduced species, common and widespread in the Azores. The second garden includes mainly collections of introduced trees, shrubs and palms from across the world (see for more details, Arteaga et al. (2020)).

Sampling description: 

Passive Flight Interception traps (SLAM traps - Sea, Land and Air Malaise trap) (Fig. 1), nocturnal Active Aerial Searching (AAS) and nocturnal Foliage Beating (FBN) methods were used to sample the arthropod biodiversity (Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Insecta Classes) on two historical urban gardens of the Azores, between 2017 and 2018: the “Jardim Botânico”, located in Horta, in Faial Island and “Jardim Duque da Terceira”, located in Angra do Heroísmo, in Terceira Island. AAS consists on collecting arthropods found above knee-level by hand, forceps, pooter or brush and immediately transferring them into vials containing ethanol 96%. FBN consists of beating tree and shrub branches with a wooden stick and collecting the fallen specimens on a beating tray, posteriorly transferred to vials containing ethanol 96%. AAS and FBN are reliable methods to collect samples of arthropods that are mainly active during the night (Borges et al. 2018). The SLAM trap consists on a structure of 110 × 110 × 110 cm (MegaView Science Co.) designed to intercept flying and non-flying arthropods. They were placed in the gardens during six consecutive months, checked monthly. For more details about sampling methods, see Arteaga et al. (2020).

Quality control: 

All collected specimens were sorted and posteriorly identified by an expert taxonomist (P.A.V.B) in the laboratory.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Faial and Terceira Islands, Azores, Portugal

Coordinates: 

38.508 and 38.807 Latitude; -28.839 and -27.0389 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

The following Classes and Orders are covered:

Arachnida: Araneae; Opiliones; Pseudoscorpiones.

Chilopoda: Scutigeromorpha.

Diplopoda: Julida.

Insecta: Archaeognatha; Blattodea; Coleoptera; Dermaptera; Hemiptera; Hymenoptera; Neuroptera; Phasmida; Psocodea; Thysanoptera.

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

The data were collected between April 2017 and 30 June 2018.

Collection data

Collection name: 
Entomoteca Dalberto Teixeira Pombo at University of the Azores.
Collection identifier: 
DTP
Specimen preservation method: 
Alcohol

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Inventory of Arthropods of Azorean Urban Gardens
Number of data sets: 
2
Data set name: 
Event Table
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive format
Data format version: 
1.5
Description: 

The dataset was published in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility platform, GBIF (Borges and Lamelas-López 2022). The following data table includes all the records for which a taxonomic identification of the species was possible. The dataset submitted to GBIF is structured as a sample event dataset that has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data file contains 20 records (eventID). This GBIF IPT (Integrated Publishing Toolkit, Version 2.5.6) archives the data and, thus, serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the Portuguese GBIF Portal IPT (Borges and Lamelas-López 2022).

Column label Column description
eventID Identifier of the events, unique for the dataset.
stateProvince Name of the region of the sampling site.
islandGroup Name of the archipelago.
island Name of the island.
country Country of the sampling site.
countryCode ISO code of the country of the sampling site.
municipality Municipality of the sampling site.
locality Locality of the sampling site.
locationID Identifier of the location.
habitat The habitat of the sampling site.
decimalLongitude The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic centre of a Location.
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic centre of a Location.
geodeticDatum The ellipsoid, geodetic datum or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geographic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude are based.
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres Uncertainty of the coordinates of the centre of the sampling plot in metres.
coordinatePrecision A decimal representation of the precision of the coordinates given in the decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude.
georeferenceSources A list (concatenated and separated) of maps, gazetteers or other resources used to georeference the Location, described specifically enough to allow anyone in the future to use the same resources.
minimumElevationInMetres The lower limit of the range of elevation (altitude, above sea level), in metres.
samplingProtocol The sampling protocol used to capture the species.
sampleSizeValue The numeric amount of time spent in each sampling.
sampleSizeUnit The unit of the sample size value.
eventDate Date or date range the record was collected.
year Year of the event.
month Month of the event.
day Day of the event.
Data set name: 
Occurrence_Table
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive format
Data format version: 
1.5
Description: 

The dataset was published in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility platform, GBIF (Borges and Lamelas-López 2022), structured as an occurrence table that has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data file contains 762 records (occurrenceID). This GBIF IPT (Integrated Publishing Toolkit, Version 2.5.6) archives the data and, thus, serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the Portuguese GBIF Portal IPT (Borges and Lamelas-López 2022).

Column label Column description
eventID Identifier of the events, unique for the dataset.
type Type of the record, as defined by the Public Core standard.
licence Reference to the licence under which the record is published.
institutionID The identity of the institution publishing the data.
institutionCode The code of the institution publishing the data.
collectionID The identity of the collection publishing the data.
collectionCode The code of the collection where the specimens are conserved.
datasetName Name of the dataset
basisOfRecord The nature of the data record.
occurrenceID Identifier of the record, coded as a global unique identifier.
recordedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups or organisations who performed the sampling in the field.
identifiedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups or organisations who performed the sampling in the field.
dateIdentified The date on which the subject was determined as representing the Taxon.
organismQuantity A number or enumeration value for the quantity of organisms.
organismQuantityType The type of quantification system used for the quantity of organisms.
sex The sex and quantity of the individuals captured.
lifeStage The life stage of the organisms captured.
identificationRemarks Information about morphospecies identification (code in Dalberto Teixeira Pombo Collection).
scientificName Complete scientific name including author and year.
kingdom Kingdom name.
phylum Phylum name.
class Class name.
order Order name.
family Family name.
genus Genus name.
specificEpithet Specific epithet.
infraspecificEpithet Infraspecific epithet.
scientificNameAuthorship Name of the author of the lowest taxon rank included in the record.
taxonRank Lowest taxonomic rank of the record.
establishmentMeans The process of establishment of the species in the location, using a controlled vocabulary: 'native', 'introduced', 'endemic', 'indeterminate'.

Additional information

We collected a total of 8342 individuals in both urban gardens, in which 7493 specimens were identified to species/subspecies level (Faial n = 3296; Terceira n = 4197). The identified specimens belong to four classes, 15 orders, 80 families and 159 species and subspecies of arthropods. A total of 84 species and subspecies are considered introduced (n = 2454 specimens), 50 native non-endemic (n = 4444 specimens), eight endemic (n = 217) and 17 have an indeterminate origin (n = 378) (Table 1).

Table 1.

Inventory of arthropods recorded in Azorean urban gardens of “Jardim Botânico” of Faial Island (FAI) and “Jardim Duque da Terceira” of Terceira Island (TER), between 2017 and 2018. The colonisation status (C.S.: End – Endemic; Nat – Native non-endemic; Int – Introduced; Ind – Indeterminate) and abundance values per island and total are provided.

Class

Order

Family

Scientific name

C.S.

FAI

TER

Total

Arachnida

Araneae

Agelenidae

Textrix caudata L. Koch, 1872

Int

10

0

10

Arachnida

Araneae

Araneidae

Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763)

Int

0

11

11

Arachnida

Araneae

Araneidae

Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)

Nat

0

2

2

Arachnida

Araneae

Araneidae

Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802)

Int

1

0

1

Arachnida

Araneae

Araneidae

Neoscona crucifera (Lucas, 1838)

Int

287

44

331

Arachnida

Araneae

Araneidae

Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757)

Int

8

2

10

Arachnida

Araneae

Cheiracanthiidae

Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch, 1864

Int

2

0

2

Arachnida

Araneae

Clubionidae

Clubiona terrestris Westring, 1851

Int

2

0

2

Arachnida

Araneae

Clubionidae

Porrhoclubiona decora (Blackwall, 1859)

Nat

172

292

464

Arachnida

Araneae

Clubionidae

Porrhoclubiona genevensis (L. Koch, 1866)

Int

3

2

5

Arachnida

Araneae

Dictynidae

Emblyna acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992

End

50

7

57

Arachnida

Araneae

Dictynidae

Nigma puella (Simon, 1870)

Int

13

15

28

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Agyneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836)

Int

0

8

8

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Entelecara schmitzi Kulczynski, 1905

Nat

71

4

75

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Erigone atra Blackwall, 1833

Int

1

1

2

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Erigone autumnalis Emerton, 1882

Int

0

1

1

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Mermessus bryantae (Ivie & Barrows, 1935)

Int

1

0

1

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Mermessus fradeorum (Berland, 1932)

Int

2

0

2

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859)

Nat

0

1

1

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Neriene clathrata (Sundevall, 1830)

Int

1

1

2

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Pelecopsis parallela (Wider, 1834)

Int

1

1

2

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852)

Int

23

14

37

Arachnida

Araneae

Mimetidae

Ero aphana (Walckenaer, 1802)

Int

0

5

5

Arachnida

Araneae

Oecobiidae

Oecobius navus Blackwall, 1859

Int

0

1

1

Arachnida

Araneae

Pholcidae

Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775)

Int

0

2

2

Arachnida

Araneae

Salticidae

Chalcoscirtus infimus (Simon, 1868)

Int

0

2

2

Arachnida

Araneae

Salticidae

Macaroeris diligens (Blackwall, 1867)

Nat

0

17

17

Arachnida

Araneae

Salticidae

Pseudeuophrys vafra (Blackwall, 1867)

Int

0

10

10

Arachnida

Araneae

Salticidae

Salticus mutabilis Lucas, 1846

Int

0

3

3

Arachnida

Araneae

Tetragnathidae

Metellina merianae (Scopoli, 1763)

Int

2

1

3

Arachnida

Araneae

Theridiidae

Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886)

Int

15

4

19

Arachnida

Araneae

Theridiidae

Dipoena umbratilis (Simon, 1873)

Int

23

0

23

Arachnida

Araneae

Theridiidae

Paidiscura orotavensis (Schmidt, 1968)

Nat

0

15

15

Arachnida

Araneae

Theridiidae

Parasteatoda tepidariorum (C. L. Koch, 1841)

Int

0

4

4

Arachnida

Araneae

Theridiidae

Steatoda grossa (C. L. Koch, 1838)

Int

43

0

43

Arachnida

Araneae

Theridiidae

Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875)

Nat

8

10

18

Arachnida

Araneae

Theridiidae

Theridion hannoniae Denis, 1945

Int

0

1

1

Arachnida

Araneae

Theridiidae

Theridion musivivum Schmidt, 1956

Nat

2

0

2

Arachnida

Opiliones

Leiobunidae

Leiobunum blackwalli Meade, 1861

Nat

142

0

142

Arachnida

Pseudoscorpiones

Chthoniidae

Chthonius ischnocheles (Hermann, 1804)

Int

2

0

2

Arachnida

Pseudoscorpiones

Chthoniidae

Ephippiochthonius tetrachelatus (Preyssler, 1790)

Int

0

2

2

Chilopoda

Scutigeromorpha

Scutigeridae

Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Int

0

71

71

Diplopoda

Julida

Julidae

Ommatoiulus moreleti (Lucas, 1860)

Int

29

44

73

Insecta

Archaeognatha

Machilidae

Dilta saxicola (Womersley, 1930)

Nat

0

3

3

Insecta

Blattodea

Kalotermitidae

Cryptotermes brevis (Walker, 1853)

Int

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Apionidae

Aspidapion radiolus (Marsham, 1802)

Int

6

8

14

Insecta

Coleoptera

Apionidae

Kalcapion semivittatum semivittatum (Gyllenhal, 1833)

Ind

4

85

89

Insecta

Coleoptera

Carabidae

Dromius meridionalis Dejean, 1825

Int

3

0

3

Insecta

Coleoptera

Chrysomelidae

Chaetocnema hortensis (Fourcroy, 1785)

Int

0

62

62

Insecta

Coleoptera

Chrysomelidae

Epitrix cucumeris (Harris, 1851)

Int

0

172

172

Insecta

Coleoptera

Chrysomelidae

Epitrix hirtipennis (Melsheimer, 1847)

Int

0

4

4

Insecta

Coleoptera

Chrysomelidae

Longitarsus kutscherai (Rye, 1872)

Int

25

0

25

Insecta

Coleoptera

Chrysomelidae

Psylliodes marcida (Illiger, 1807)

Nat

0

2

2

Insecta

Coleoptera

Coccinellidae

Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi, 1794)

Int

0

7

7

Insecta

Coleoptera

Coccinellidae

Scymniscus helgae (Fürsch, 1965)

Int

0

13

13

Insecta

Coleoptera

Coccinellidae

Scymnus interruptus (Goeze, 1777)

Nat

0

162

162

Insecta

Coleoptera

Coccinellidae

Stethorus pusillus (Herbst, 1797)

Nat

0

20

20

Insecta

Coleoptera

Corylophidae

Sericoderus lateralis (Gyllenhal, 1827)

Int

9

263

272

Insecta

Coleoptera

Cryptophagidae

Cryptophagus cellaris (Scopoli, 1763)

Int

0

2

2

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Calacalles subcarinatus (Israelson, 1984)

End

1

0

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Coccotrypes carpophagus (Hornung, 1842)

Int

0

69

69

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Derelomus piriformis (Hoffmann, 1938)

Int

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Lixus pulverulentus (Scopoli, 1763)

Int

0

4

4

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Mecinus pascuorum (Gyllenhal, 1813)

Int

0

125

125

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Naupactus cervinus (Boheman, 1840)

Int

0

3

3

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Naupactus leucoloma Boheman, 1840

Int

0

11

11

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Otiorhynchus cribricollis Gyllenhal, 1834

Int

1

0

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Sirocalodes mixtus (Mulsant & Rey, 1859)

Int

0

3

3

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Sitona cinnamomeus Allard, 1863

Int

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Dryophthoridae

Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763)

Int

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Elateridae

Heteroderes azoricus (Tarnier, 1860)

End

2

1

3

Insecta

Coleoptera

Elateridae

Heteroderes vagus Candèze, 1893

Int

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Latridiidae

Cartodere bifasciata (Reitter, 1877)

Int

1

28

29

Insecta

Coleoptera

Latridiidae

Cartodere nodifer (Westwood, 1839)

Int

0

4

4

Insecta

Coleoptera

Mycetophagidae

Litargus balteatus LeConte, 1856

Int

0

12

12

Insecta

Coleoptera

Mycetophagidae

Typhaea stercorea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Int

0

7

7

Insecta

Coleoptera

Nitidulidae

Phenolia limbata tibialis (Boheman, 1851)

Int

0

2

2

Insecta

Coleoptera

Phalacridae

Stilbus testaceus (Panzer, 1797)

Nat

0

68

68

Insecta

Coleoptera

Ptiliidae

Ptenidium pusillum (Gyllenhal, 1808)

Int

0

2

2

Insecta

Coleoptera

Ptinidae

Anobium punctatum (De Geer, 1774)

Int

0

6

6

Insecta

Coleoptera

Scraptiidae

Anaspis proteus Wollaston, 1854

Nat

1

0

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Silvanidae

Cryptamorpha desjardinsii (Guérin-Méneville, 1844)

Int

0

2

2

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Atheta fungi (Gravenhorst, 1806)

Ind

0

62

62

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Carpelimus corticinus (Gravenhorst, 1806)

Ind

0

5

5

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Carpelimus zealandicus (Sharp, 1900)

Int

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Coproporus pulchellus (Erichson, 1839)

Ind

0

6

6

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Cordalia obscura (Gravenhorst, 1802)

Ind

0

3

3

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Hypomedon debilicornis (Wollaston, 1857)

Ind

0

11

11

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Myrmecocephalus concinnus (Erichson, 1839)

Ind

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Oligota pumilio Kiesenwetter, 1858

Ind

0

14

14

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Oxypoda lurida Wollaston, 1857

Ind

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Proteinus atomarius Erichson, 1840

Ind

0

53

53

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Rugilus orbiculatus (Paykull, 1789)

Ind

0

3

3

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Scopaeus portai Luze, 1910

Ind

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Stenomastax madeirae Assing, 2003

Ind

0

1

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Sunius propinquus (Brisout de Barneville, 1867)

Ind

1

0

1

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Tachyporus chrysomelinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ind

18

37

55

Insecta

Coleoptera

Staphylinidae

Tachyporus nitidulus (Fabricius, 1781)

Ind

48

24

72

Insecta

Dermaptera

Anisolabididae

Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847)

Int

4

0

4

Insecta

Dermaptera

Forficulidae

Forficula auricularia Linnaeus, 1758

Int

2

0

2

Insecta

Dermaptera

Labiduridae

Labidura riparia (Pallas, 1773)

Nat

4

0

4

Insecta

Dermaptera

Spongiphoridae

Labia minor (Linnaeus, 1758)

Int

0

2

2

Insecta

Hemiptera

Anthocoridae

Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794)

Nat

0

11

11

Insecta

Hemiptera

Anthocoridae

Buchananiella continua (White, 1880)

Int

0

4

4

Insecta

Hemiptera

Anthocoridae

Orius laevigatus laevigatus (Fieber, 1860)

Nat

2

14

16

Insecta

Hemiptera

Aphididae

Cinara juniperi (De Geer, 1773)

Nat

374

0

374

Insecta

Hemiptera

Cicadellidae

Eupteryx filicum (Newman, 1853)

Nat

5

15

20

Insecta

Hemiptera

Cicadellidae

Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum, 1858)

Nat

0

40

40

Insecta

Hemiptera

Cicadellidae

Sophonia orientalis (Matsumura, 1912)

Int

0

10

10

Insecta

Hemiptera

Cixiidae

Cixius azopifajo azofa Remane & Asche, 1979

End

1

0

1

Insecta

Hemiptera

Delphacidae

Kelisia ribauti Wagner, 1938

Nat

0

5

5

Insecta

Hemiptera

Flatidae

Cyphopterum adcendens (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835)

Nat

725

0

725

Insecta

Hemiptera

Flatidae

Siphanta acuta (Walker, 1851)

Int

0

163

163

Insecta

Hemiptera

Liviidae

Strophingia harteni Hodkinson, 1981

End

39

0

39

Insecta

Hemiptera

Lyctocoridae

Lyctocoris campestris (Fabricius, 1794)

Int

0

2

2

Insecta

Hemiptera

Lygaeidae

Kleidocerys ericae (Horváth, 1909)

Nat

20

2

22

Insecta

Hemiptera

Microphysidae

Loricula coleoptrata (Fallén, 1807)

Nat

57

0

57

Insecta

Hemiptera

Miridae

Campyloneura virgula (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835)

Nat

37

0

37

Insecta

Hemiptera

Miridae

Heterotoma planicornis (Pallas, 1772)

Nat

1

0

1

Insecta

Hemiptera

Miridae

Monalocoris filicis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Nat

0

6

6

Insecta

Hemiptera

Miridae

Pilophorus confusus (Kirschbaum, 1856)

Nat

37

19

56

Insecta

Hemiptera

Miridae

Taylorilygus apicalis (Fieber, 1861)

Int

0

2

2

Insecta

Hemiptera

Miridae

Trigonotylus caelestialium (Kirkaldy, 1902)

Nat

0

7

7

Insecta

Hemiptera

Nabidae

Nabis pseudoferus ibericus Remane, 1962

Nat

0

1

1

Insecta

Hemiptera

Oxycarenidae

Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787)

Int

0

281

281

Insecta

Hemiptera

Pentatomidae

Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758)

Int

0

1

1

Insecta

Hemiptera

Reduviidae

Empicoris rubromaculatus (Blackburn, 1889)

Int

14

7

21

Insecta

Hemiptera

Rhyparochromidae

Aphanus rolandri (Linnaeus, 1758)

Nat

0

4

4

Insecta

Hemiptera

Rhyparochromidae

Beosus maritimus (Scopoli, 1763)

Nat

0

1

1

Insecta

Hemiptera

Rhyparochromidae

Emblethis denticollis Horváth, 1878

Nat

0

1

1

Insecta

Hemiptera

Rhyparochromidae

Scolopostethus decoratus (Hahn, 1833)

Nat

0

6

6

Insecta

Hemiptera

Triozidae

Trioza laurisilvae Hodkinson, 1990

Nat

21

0

21

Insecta

Hymenoptera

Formicidae

Hypoponera eduardi (Forel, 1894)

Nat

4

0

4

Insecta

Hymenoptera

Formicidae

Lasius grandis Forel, 1909

Nat

101

454

555

Insecta

Hymenoptera

Formicidae

Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868)

Int

0

30

30

Insecta

Hymenoptera

Formicidae

Monomorium carbonarium (Smith, 1858)

Nat

0

5

5

Insecta

Hymenoptera

Formicidae

Tetramorium caespitum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Nat

0

18

18

Insecta

Hymenoptera

Formicidae

Tetramorium caldarium (Roger, 1857)

Int

0

14

14

Insecta

Neuroptera

Hemerobiidae

Hemerobius azoricus Tjeder, 1948

End

87

5

92

Insecta

Phasmida

Phasmatidae

Carausius morosus (Sinéty, 1901)

Int

4

0

4

Insecta

Psocodea

Caeciliusidae

Valenzuela burmeisteri (Brauer, 1876)

Nat

5

1

6

Insecta

Psocodea

Caeciliusidae

Valenzuela flavidus (Stephens, 1836)

Nat

8

6

14

Insecta

Psocodea

Ectopsocidae

Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, 1899

Int

16

50

66

Insecta

Psocodea

Ectopsocidae

Ectopsocus strauchi Enderlein, 1906

Nat

1

90

91

Insecta

Psocodea

Elipsocidae

Elipsocus azoricus Meinander, 1975

End

18

5

23

Insecta

Psocodea

Elipsocidae

Elipsocus brincki Badonnel, 1963

End

0

1

1

Insecta

Psocodea

Epipsocidae

Bertkauia lucifuga (Rambur, 1842)

Nat

21

1

22

Insecta

Psocodea

Peripsocidae

Peripsocus phaeopterus (Stephens, 1836)

Nat

0

4

4

Insecta

Psocodea

Psocidae

Atlantopsocus adustus (Hagen, 1865)

Nat

98

5

103

Insecta

Psocodea

Trichopsocidae

Trichopsocus clarus (Banks, 1908)

Nat

502

667

1169

Insecta

Thysanoptera

Aeolothripidae

Aeolothrips gloriosus Bagnall, 1914

Nat

1

1

2

Insecta

Thysanoptera

Phlaeothripidae

Hoplothrips corticis (De Geer, 1773)

Nat

2

0

2

Insecta

Thysanoptera

Thripidae

Ceratothrips ericae (Haliday, 1836)

Nat

42

0

42

Insecta

Thysanoptera

Thripidae

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché, 1833)

Int

8

3

11

Insecta

Thysanoptera

Thripidae

Hercinothrips bicinctus (Bagnall, 1919)

Int

1

245

246

Insecta

Thysanoptera

Thripidae

Parthenothrips dracaenae (Heeger, 1854)

Int

0

12

12

In general, the most abundant species were the barklice Trichopsocus clarus (Banks, 1908) (Psocodea, Trichopsocidae) (n = 1169), which were captured in both urban gardens (Faial n = 502; Terceira n = 667), the fulgoroid planthopper Cyphopterum adcendens (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835) (Hemiptera, Flatidae), recorded only in Faial urban garden (n = 725) and the ant Lasius grandis Forel, 1909 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (n = 555) being recorded in both Islands (Faial n = 101; Terceira n = 454; Table 2). These three species are considered native non-endemic in the Archipelago. The most common endemic species were the lacewing Hemerobius azoricus Tjeder, 1948 (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) (n = 92) and the spider Emblyna acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 (Araneae, Dictynidae) (n = 57), being more abundant in the Faial urban garden (n = 87 and n = 50, respectively), than in the Terceira urban garden (n = 5 and n = 7, respectively). The most abundant introduced species were the spider Neoscona crucifera (Lucas, 1838) (Araneae, Araneidae) (n = 331) and the true bug Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) (Hemiptera, Oxycarenidae) (n = 281), the first species being more abundant in Faial (n = 287) than in Terceira (n = 44) and the second one absent in Faial urban garden (Table 1). The most common recorded arthropod families were Flatidae (Hemiptera; n = 888) and Trichopsocidae (Psocodea; n = 1169), being relatively abundant in both urban gardens (Table 2).

Table 2.

Ranking of the ten most abundant species per urban garden. The colonisation statuses (C.S.: End – Endemic; Nat – Native non-endemic; Int – Introduced) and abundance values (N) are provided.

Class

Order

Family

Scientific name

C.S.

N

Faial Urban Garden

Insecta

Hemiptera

Flatidae

Cyphopterum adcendens (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835)

Nat

725

Insecta

Psocodea

Trichopsocidae

Trichopsocus clarus (Banks, 1908)

Nat

502

Insecta

Hemiptera

Aphididae

Cinara juniperi (De Geer, 1773)

Nat

374

Arachnida

Araneae

Araneidae

Neoscona crucifera (Lucas, 1838)

Int

287

Arachnida

Araneae

Clubionidae

Porrhoclubiona decora (Blackwall, 1859)

Nat

172

Arachnida

Opiliones

Leiobunidae

Leiobunum blackwalli Meade, 1861

Nat

142

Insecta

Hymenoptera

Formicidae

Lasius grandis Forel, 1909

Nat

101

Insecta

Psocodea

Psocidae

Atlantopsocus adustus (Hagen, 1865)

Nat

98

Insecta

Neuroptera

Hemerobiidae

Hemerobius azoricus Tjeder, 1948

End

87

Arachnida

Araneae

Linyphiidae

Entelecara schmitzi Kulczynski, 1905

Nat

71

Terceira Urban Garden

Insecta

Psocodea

Trichopsocidae

Trichopsocus clarus (Banks, 1908)

Nat

667

Insecta

Hymenoptera

Formicidae

Lasius grandis Forel, 1909

Nat

454

Arachnida

Araneae

Clubionidae

Porrhoclubiona decora (Blackwall, 1859)

Nat

292

Insecta

Hemiptera

Oxycarenidae

Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787)

Int

281

Insecta

Coleoptera

Corylophidae

Sericoderus lateralis (Gyllenhal, 1827)

Int

263

Insecta

Thysanoptera

Thripidae

Hercinothrips bicinctus (Bagnall, 1919)

Int

245

Insecta

Coleoptera

Chrysomelidae

Epitrix cucumeris (Harris, 1851)

Int

172

Insecta

Hemiptera

Flatidae

Siphanta acuta (Walker, 1851)

Int

163

Insecta

Coleoptera

Coccinellidae

Scymnus interruptus (Goeze, 1777)

Nat

162

Insecta

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Mecinus pascuorum (Gyllenhal, 1813)

Int

125

Considering the identified taxa (Table 1), we recorded 72 species and subspecies in Faial, with 28 being considered native non-endemic, seven endemic, 33 introduced and four of indeterminate origin. On the other hand, in Terceira, a total of 124 species and subspecies were recorded, 37 being considered native non-endemic, five endemic, 67 introduced and 15 of indeterminate origin (Table 1). The proportion of native endemic and non-endemic species in Terceira urban garden (33.87%) is lower than in Faial (48.61%) and the proportion of introduced species is higher in Terceira urban garden (54.03%) in comparison with Faial (45.83%).

This study also updates the taxonomy of the arthropods of the Azorean urban gardens. A total of three orders, ten families and 22 species were taxonomically updated (Table 3).

Table 3.

Update of the taxonomy of the species recorded in the Azorean urban gardens of Faial and Terceira Islands. *Some species of Anthocoridae family change to Lyctocoridae; **Some species of Lygaeidae family change to Oxycarenidae and Rhyparochromidae; MF Morphospecies; *** - Not recorded in Arteaga et al. 2020.

Level

Artega et al. (2020)

New Taxonomy

Order

Psocoptera

Psocodea

Order

Microcoryphia

Archaeognatha

Order

Phasmatodea

Phasmida

Family

Eutichuridae

Cheiracanthiidae

Family

Phalangiidae

Leiobunidae

Family

Anobiidae

Ptinidae

Family

Brentidae

Apionidae

Family

Lathridiidae

Latridiidae

Family

Lachnidae

Aphididae

Family

Anthocoridae*

Lyctocoridae

Family

Lygaeidae**

Oxycarenidae

Family

Lygaeidae**

Rhyparochromidae

Family

Psyllidae

Liviidae

Species

Meioneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836)

Agyneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836)

Species

Carpelimus sp.

Carpelimus zealandicus (Sharp, 1900)

Species

MF 1376

Derelomus piriformis (Hoffmann, 1938)

Species

Genus (?), species (?) ***

Dipoena umbratilis (Simon, 1873)

Species

Chthonius tetrachelatus (Preyssler, 1790)

Ephippiochthonius tetrachelatus (Preyssler, 1790)

Species

Kleidocerys ericae (Horváth, 1908)

Kleidocerys ericae (Horváth, 1909)

Species

Loricula elegantula (Bärensprung, 1858)

Loricula coleoptrata (Fallén, 1807)

Species

Gymnetron pascuorum (Gyllenhal, 1813)

Mecinus pascuorum (Gyllenhal, 1813)

Species

Monomorium carbonarium (F. Smith, 1858)

Monomorium carbonarium (Smith, 1858)

Species

Myrmecocephalus concinnus (Erichson, 1840)

Myrmecocephalus concinnus (Erichson, 1839)

Species

Pantomorus cervinus (Boheman, 1849)

Naupactus cervinus (Boheman, 1840)

Species

MF 1385

Oxypoda lurida Wollaston, 1857

Species

Psylliodes marcidus (Illiger, 1807)

Psylliodes marcida (Illiger, 1807)

Species

MF 551

Scopaeus portai Luze, 1910

Species

Nephus helgae Fürsch, 1965

Scymniscus helgae (Fürsch, 1965)

Species

Sirocalodes mixtus (Mulsant & Rey, 1858)

Sirocalodes mixtus (Mulsant & Rey, 1859)

Species

MF 1398

Sitona cinnamomeus Allard, 1863

Species

MF 1274

Sophonia orientalis (Matsumura, 1912)

Species

Stethorus pusillus (Herbst, 1979)

Stethorus pusillus (Herbst, 1797)

Species

MF Formicidae F6

Tetramorium caespitum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Species

MF Formicidae F6

Tetramorium caldarium (Roger, 1857)

Species

Theridion hannoniae Denis, 1944

Theridion hannoniae Denis, 1945

This publication includes a recent inventory and updates the knowledge about the arthropod diversity and taxonomy of Arteaga et al. (2020). In general, the Terceira garden is mainly dominated by exotic plant species and, consequently, the proportion of introduced arthropods species is higher than in Faial, which is mainly composed by native plant species. Contrarily, the proportion of native species (endemic and non-endemic) is higher in Faial than in Terceira. These results are according to the findings of Arteaga et al. (2020).

Public and botanical gardens are important green infrastructures that promote the conservation of plants species, support science dissemination activities and people's health. Additional positive functions may include microclimatic regulation and water retention (Macháč et al. 2022). However, there is an ongoing debate on the role of gardens dominated by exotic plants and their role as a source for the spread of exotic potentially invasive species (Dawson et al. 2008). Concerning arthropods, our study generated several interesting patterns:

i) no introduced species had a dominant role in any garden, despite several being part of the 50% most abundant species in Terceira;

iii) in Faial Botanical Garden, the 50% most abundant species are either endemic or native non-endemic, with only one introduced species;

iii) most introduced and species of indeterminate status are particularly rare.

In conclusion, in general, the origin of the plant composition of the urban gardens can have an effect on the arthropod biodiversity origin (native vs. introduced species) present in the gardens, but the two studied settings also constitute a repository of indigenous fauna playing an important role in the conservation of native biota of the Archipelago. In particular, the Faial Island Botanical Garden, which holds a large community of native species, can be part of a future corridor of native plants across the agricultural landscape in this Island.

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the Municipality of Angra do Heroísmo (Terceira, Azores) and the Botanic Garden of Horta (Faial) for providing the necessary authorisation for conducting the study. We are grateful to FEDER that financed project Green Garden Azores (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000070 - 85% through Azorean Public funds and 15% through Operational Programme Azores 2020) for supporting the fieldwork and the projects AZORESBIOPORTAL (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072) and Portal da Biodiversidade dos Açores (2022-2023) - PO Azores Project - M1.1.A/INFRAEST CIENT/001/2022, for supporting the taxonomic research.

Lucas Lamelas-Lopez was supported by the Project FCT-UIDP/00329/2020-2023 and Paulo A. V. Borges and Rosalina Gabriel performed research under the project MACRISK-Trait-based prediction of extinction risk and invasiveness for Northern Macaronesian arthropods (FCT-PTDC/BIA-CBI/0625/2021) that financed also the Open Access of this publication.

Author contributions

LLL: Data Curation; Darwin Core dataset preparation; Formal analysis and interpretation; manuscript writing.

RG: Research (fieldwork); Resources; Project leading; data interpretation and manuscript revision.

ARP: Research (field and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation.

PAVB: Conceptualisation; Methodology; Research (field and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation; Darwin Core dataset preparation; Formal analysis and interpretation; manuscript writing.

References