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Taxonomic paper

Guide to the Vascular Flora of the Savannas and Flatwoods of Shaken Creek Preserve and Vicinity (Pender & Onslow Counties, North Carolina, U.S.A.)

expand article infoRobert Thornhill, Alexander Krings, David Lindbo, Jon Stucky
† North Carolina State University, Raleigh, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Shaken Creek Preserve (“SCP”) is a 2,448 ha (6,050 ac) natural area in Pender and Onslow Counties, North Carolina (U.S.A). Best known for its high-quality longleaf pine savanna habitat, the site contains seven savanna or savanna-like plant community types (i.e., flatwoods or sandhills), three of which are globally critically imperiled (G1): Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush Featherling subtype), Wet Loamy Pine Savanna, and Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna. SCP hosts three Federally Endangered plant species and six Federal Species of Concern. Formerly a private hunting club, the site was virtually unknown to scientists until the 1990s; consequently, few biological inventories of SCP have been conducted. In particular, no systematic floristic inventories of the species-rich savannas have been undertaken, despite the fact that floristic data is critical to the effective management of any natural area. The goals of this study were to (1) inventory the vascular flora of the savannas, flatwoods, and sandhill community types on site through the collection of voucher specimens; (2) provide a comprehensive checklist of the flora based on collections and reports made from the site and from the same or similar habitats in the vicinity (i.e., within 2 miles of SCP); and (3) create an illustrated guide based on the checklist. In order to increase the usefulness of the guide, taxa not currently known from SCP but collected or reported from the same or similar habitats within two miles of SCP, are included in the guide. Eighty-three families containing 450 taxa, including thirty-two Significantly Rare and thirty-eight Watch List taxa, were collected or reported from SCP; an additional seven families containing a total of 102 taxa, including eighteen Significantly Rare and seven Watch List taxa, were collected or reported from the vicinity. In total, ninety families containing 552 taxa, including fifty Significantly Rare and forty-five Watch List taxa, are treated in the guide. Dichotomous keys are provided to all vouchered or reported families, genera, and species. The following features are provided for all species and infraspecific taxa: flowering and fruiting phenology; synonymy with Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas, the Flora of North America, and Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States; relevant voucher information; and, for most taxa, line drawings and/or photographs. For taxa collected from SCP, community types in which the taxa occur and estimates of abundance on site are also provided.

Keywords

Floristic inventory, longleaf pine savannas, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Shaken Creek Preserve.

Introduction

Shaken Creek Preserve (“SCP”) contains among the highest-quality savanna and flatwoods habitats known throughout the range of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems (LeBlond 2000). The 2,448 ha (6,050 ac) site is located in northeastern Pender County, North Carolina, with a small portion extending into adjacent Onslow County. Formerly a private hunting club, SCP was purchased by The Nature Conservancy in 2007. Previous botanical studies on site consisted of inventory work by LeBlond (2000) and plot studies by the Carolina Vegetation Survey (Peet et al. 2004). However, neither of these studies involved systematic surveying over multiple growing seasons, and neither included significant collecting efforts. Moreover, some savannas and flatwoods on site were not inventoried by either study. The goals of this study were to (1) inventory the vascular flora of the savanna, flatwoods, and sandhill community types on site through the collection of voucher specimens; (2) provide a comprehensive checklist of the flora based on collections and reports made from the site and from the same or similar habitats in the vicinity (i.e., within 2 miles of SCP, including all tracts comprising Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area); and (3) create an illustrated guide based on the checklist.

Setting

SCP is a 2,448 ha (6,050 ac) tract located between 34.566° and 34.611°N and 77. 614° and 77.720°W in northeastern Pender County, North Carolina, with a small portion extending approximately 0.3 km into Onslow County (Fig. 1). The geographic center of the site is approximately 8.3 km south-southeast of Maple Hill, NC and 21 km northwest of the nearest point in the Atlantic Ocean. The site lies in the outer Coastal Plain ecophysiographic province and within the Cape Fear Arch geological uplift, a region extending from southeastern North Carolina into northeastern South Carolina that is characterized by unusual outcroppings of Cretaceous deposits. This area supports a suite of at least forty-four endemic or near-endemic plant taxa, many of which are rare (LeBlond 2001).

Figure 1.

Location of areas included in this study. The striped portion designates areas within two miles of Shaken Creek Preserve. Three primary sites—Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area, Shaken Creek Preserve, and the northern portion of Holly Shelter Gamelands—are labeled in bold. The individual tracts that comprise Sandy Run are labeled with the following abbreviations: H = Hancock, HR = Haw’s Run, N = The Neck Savanna, O = O’Berry, P = Patterson, R = RMK. Baseline imagery from Bing Maps Road, courtesy of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) (2011).

A small portion of SCP extends to the south of Shaken Creek, which otherwise forms the southern boundary of the property. The northeastern boundary follows Shelter Swamp Creek, while Flo Road west of its intersection with Williams Road forms the northwestern boundary (Fig. 2). With a small exception in the extreme northwest corner of the property, Long Ridge Road outlines the western property boundary. The irregular eastern boundary does not consistently follow any natural features or landmark. SCP is bordered to the southwest by Holly Shelter Gameland; to the northeast by Haw’s Run Mitigation Site, a future component of Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area; and in other directions by private land. Primary access is south along Williams Road from NC Highway 50, though the site is not openly accessible to the public.

Figure 2.

Aerial photograph of Shaken Creek Preserve with main roads labeled. Baseline imagery from Bing Maps Aerial, courtesy of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) (2011).

Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area (“Sandy Run”) is a 1,214 ha (3,000 ac) site north of SCP (Fig. 1). It is comprised of seven tracts, six of which are currently owned by the NC Division of Parks and Recreation. One tract, Haw’s Run Mitigation Site, which abuts the northeastern portion of SCP, is currently owned by the NC Department of Transportation; however, transfer of this parcel to the NC Division of Parks and Recreation is impending. The various tracts comprising Sandy Run have experienced different management and land use histories, creating an array of habitats including several high-quality savannas and flatwoods. The flora of Sandy Run was recently inventoried by Taggart (2010). Though some portions of Sandy Run are slightly farther than two miles from SCP, vouchers or reports from all Sandy Run tracts were included in this work.

Holly Shelter Game Land is a 26,200 ha (64,742 ac) property south of SCP (Fig. 1). It is owned by the NC Wildlife Resources Commission, which manages the land for public outdoor recreation, particularly hunting and fishing. Only the northeast portion of the property lies within two miles of SCP; as such, plant vouchers or reports from other areas of Holly Shelter are not included in this work.

History and Land Use

Prior to its purchase by The Nature Conservancy, the land comprising SCP was owned mostly by members of the Wallace Deer Club, a private hunting group established in the 1920s. The site was virtually unknown to scientists until 1997, when William Blanchard, a member of the Wallace Deer Club and part owner of the land, introduced it to Hervey McIver, a land manager and project coordinator with The Nature Conservancy. With permission from Blanchard, McIver and Richard LeBlond, then a botanist with the NC Natural Heritage Program, undertook the first preliminary surveys of the area and realized quickly that the site contained exceptionally high-quality savannas and numerous rare species. At the time, McIver was working with Blanchard to complete a deed to The Nature Conservancy for fifty acres Blanchard owned in the nearby Neck Savanna, now a tract within Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area. Blanchard suggested that the land now comprising SCP should also be permanently conserved and eventually agreed to sell his shares of the property. However, purchasing SCP required not just the approval of Blanchard, but of all the approximately fifty landowners who inherited or purchased property rights to the site. After three years of negotiations, The Nature Conservancy closed on the property in 2007. Members of the Wallace Deer Club retained hunting rights to the property, but the site is now owned and managed by The Nature Conservancy.

The excellent quality of many of the savannas on site, as evidenced by the abundance of rare species, the high species richness, and the absence of invasive species, can be directly attributed to the Wallace Deer Club, whose members frequently burned particular areas in order to maintain both the hunting quality and the aesthetic of the land. Evidence of disturbances other than fire in the savannas and flatwoods on site is limited to a few ditches and occasional “borrow pits”, relatively small holes dug to “borrow” the soil in order to regrade and maintain the dirt roads on the property. Based on the size of the canopy trees, many savannas and flatwoods appear to have been logged as recently as the 1980s, though few or no effects on the ground layer are apparent today. Overall, the habitat quality of the site (especially those areas historically burned by members of the hunting club) remains excellent (LeBlond 2000).

Climate

The climate at SCP is warm, temperate, and humid for much of the year. The nearest weather station is approximately 29 km away in Jacksonville (Onslow County: 34.7°N, 77.383°W) at 4.9 m above sea level. Over the thirty-year period from 1971 to 2000, the average annual temperature was 17.1 °C, with a mean annual precipitation of 1,397 mm. Average daily maximum temperature was 23.1 °C, and average daily minimum temperature was 11 °C (State Climate Office of NC, http://www.nc-climate.ncsu.edu/; Fig. 3a). The next closest weather station is approximately 35 km away in Willard (Pender County: 34.661°N, 78.046°W) at 16.7 m above sea level. Over the thirty-year period from 1971 to 2000, the average annual temperature was 17.7 °C, with a mean annual precipitation of 1,377 mm. Average daily maximum temperature was 24.2 °C, and average daily minimum temperature was 11.1 °C (State Climate Office of NC, http://www.nc-climate.ncsu.edu/; Fig. 3b). For both stations, monthly average temperatures were highest in July and August and lowest in January and February. Monthly precipitation amounts were highest in July and August for both stations and lowest in April and October in Jacksonville and April and November in Willard.

Figure 3.

Walter climate diagrams for the two weather stations nearest Shaken Creek Preserve. Data from the State Climate Office of North Carolina (2012; see http://www.nc-climate.ncsu.edu). Suppl. material 1

aWalter climate diagram for the weather station in Jacksonville, NC (Onslow Co.).
bWalter climate diagram for the weather station in Willard, NC (Pender Co.).

The annual growing season, defined as the number of days in five years out of ten during which the daily minimum temperatures exceed 28 °F (-2.2 °C), is 235 days in Pender County and 210 days in Onslow County (Barnhill 1990, Barnhill 1992).

Elevation at SCP ranges from 4 m (13 ft) to 12.9 m (42 ft) above sea level (NC Department of Transportation, http://www.ncdot.gov/it/gis/default.html).

Soils

Twelve soil types representing five soil orders are mapped at SCP (Barnhill 1990, Barnhill 1992; Fig. 4). Ultisols are the most abundant in type, though Spodosols are the most abundant in area. Entisols comprise 21.4% of the total area and are the dominant soil order along Shaken Creek and Shelter Swamp Creek. While most areas mapped as Entisols support swamp communities, a few savannas do occur over Entisols, as along Alligator Lake Road and the eastern portion of Mule Pen Road. Histosols comprise 8.7% of the total area and, with one small exception, are restricted to the central western portion of the property, which is dominated by Pond Pine Woodland (Typic subtype) and High Pocosin (Typic subtype) communities (sensu Schafale 2012). No savanna or savanna-like community types are known to occur on Histosols at SCP. Inceptisols comprise 14.2% of the total area and are the dominant order in the central eastern portion of the property, an area that has not been managed with fire in many decades. Excepting one very small area on the west side of the north end of Alligator Lake Road, no savannas or savanna-like areas occur at SCP in areas mapped as Inceptisols. Spodosols comprise 36.6% of the total area and are the dominant soil order in the central, northwestern, and southestern portions of the property. Excellent examples of savannas and flatwoods occurring over Spodosols are apparent along Half Moon Road, Long Ridge Road, and the portion of Flo Road between the powerline right of way and Meadow Lake Road. Ultisols comprise 19.1% of the total area and are the dominant order in the northeastern and southeastern portions of the property. Many of the most species-rich savannas, most notably those along Flo Road east of its intersection with Fill Road, occur in areas mapped as Ultisols.

Figure 4.

Soil mapping units at Shaken Creek Preserve. Coll. area = collection area; PL = powerline right-of-way; BaB = Baymeade fine sand; Ct = Croatan muck; Fo = Foreston loamy fine sand; LnA = Leon fine sand; Ma = Mandarin fine sand; Mk = Muckalee loam, frequently flooded; Mu = Murville muck; PaA = Pactolus fine sand; Pn = Pantego mucky fine sandy loam; St = Stallings loamy fine sand; To = Torhunta mucky fine sandy loam; Wo = Woodington fine sandy loam. Based on data from Barnhill (1990, 1992). Baseline imagery from Bing Maps Aerial, courtesy of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) (2011).

A brief synopsis of each of the twelve soil types, arranged by soil order, is provided below.

Entisols

Muckalee (Mk) loam, frequently flooded (Coarse-loamy, siliceous, superactive, non-acid, thermic Typic Fluvaquents)

Poorly-drained soils on floodplains. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is loam in the upper 30 cm and sandy loam with thin strata of loamy sand or sand from 30 cm to 150 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table between 15 cm and 46 cm below the soil surface and are frequently flooded for brief periods (Barnhill 1990). This is the primary mapping unit along Shaken Creek and Shelter Swamp Creek and is occupied predominantly by Blackwater Bottomland Hardwoods (High subtype) and other swamp communities.

Pactolus (PaA) fine sand (Thermic, coated Aquic Quartzipsamments)

Moderately well-drained or somewhat poorly-drained soils in slight depressions in uplands and on low ridges on terraces. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is fine sand to 200 cm below the soil surface. These soils have a seasonal high water table between 46 cm and 76 cm below the soil surface and are not subject to flooding (Barnhill 1990). This mapping unit occurs primarily in narrow bands along the southern portion of the property. Three examples of the Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna community occur on Pactolus soils.

Histosols

Croatan (Ct) muck (Loamy, siliceous, dysic, thermic Terric Haplosaprists)

Very poorly-drained soils on interstream divides. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is muck in the upper 89 cm, fine sandy loam between 89 cm and 114 cm, sandy clay loam between 114 cm and 191 cm, and fine sandy loam between 191 cm and 200 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table at or near the soil surface for about six months and are rarely flooded for brief periods (Barnhill 1990). This mapping unit is nearly restricted to the central-western portion of the property and supports Pond Pine Woodland (Typic subtype) and High Pocosin (Typic subtype) communities.

Inceptisols

Torhunta (To) mucky fine sandy loam (Coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, acid, thermic Typic Humaquepts)

Very poorly-drained soils on interstream areas and on stream terraces. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is mucky fine sandy loam in the upper 8 cm, fine sandy loam between 8 cm and 152 cm, and sandy loam and sand to 200 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table between 15 cm and 46 cm below the soil surface and are rarely flooded for brief periods (Barnhill 1990). This mapping unit occupies the central-eastern portion of the property, a fire-suppressed area that supports few or no savanna, flatwood, or sandhill communities.

Spodosols

Leon (LnA) fine sand (Sandy, siliceous, thermic Aeric Alaquods)

Poorly-drained soils on interstream areas. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is fine sand to 200 cm below the soil surface. These soils have a seasonal high water table less than 30 cm below the soil surface and are not subject to flooding (Barnhill 1990). This is the primary mapping unit of the central portion of the property and is well-represented along Half Moon Road and the portion of Flo Road between the powerline cut and Meadow Lake Road. The best and most accessible examples of Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype), Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype), and Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush featherling subtype) are found in areas mapped as Leon fine sand.

Mandarin (Ma) fine sand (Sandy, siliceous, thermic Oxyaquic Alorthods)

Somewhat poorly-drained soils on moderately elevated areas in interstream divides. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is fine sand in the upper 101 cm and sand between 101 cm and 200 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table between 46 cm and 107 cm below the soil surface and are not subject to flooding (Barnhill 1990). This mapping unit is restricted to narrow ridges in the central and western portions of the property. The largest example is in the northwest corner of the property south of Long Ridge Road, which supports extensive Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype) and Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype) communities.

Murville (Mu) muck (Sandy, siliceous, thermic Umbric Endoaquods)

Very poorly-drained soils on interstream areas and in depressions. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is muck in the upper 8 cm, mucky fine sand between 8 cm and 28 cm, fine sand between 28 cm and 124 cm, loamy fine sand between 124 cm and 140 cm, and fine sand between 140 cm and 200 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table less than 30 cm below the soil surface and are not subject to flooding (Barnhill 1990). This mapping unit is the largest in area at SCP and dominates the west-central and western portions of the property. It is particularly abundant north of Mule Pen Road and along the portion of Indian Grave Road east of the powerline cut. Most areas mapped as Murville support Pond Pine Woodland (Typic subtype) communities.

Ultisols

Baymeade (BaB) fine sand (Loamy, siliceous, semiactive, thermic Arenic Hapludults)

Well-drained soils on low ridges and convex slopes in uplands. Slopes are 1–4%. Typical soil texture is fine sand in the upper 64 cm, fine sandy loam between 64 cm and 148 cm, and fine sand between 148 cm and 200 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table between 122 cm and 152 cm below the soil surface and are not subject to flooding (Barnhill 1990). The smallest mapping unit on site, Baymeade fine sand is restricted to one area north of Mule Pen Road, approximately 1 km west of the intersection of Mule Pen Road and Williams Road. This small area is among the driest and “hilliest” at SCP and supports a Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Mesic Transition subtype) community.

Foreston (Fo) loamy fine sand (Coarse-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, thermic Aquic Paleudults)

Moderately well-drained soils on slightly convex interstream divides near shallow drainageways. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is loamy fine sand in the upper 33 cm, fine sandy loam between 33 cm and 102 cm, fine sandy loam with pockets of loamy fine sand between 102 cm and 140 cm, fine sandy loam with strata of loamy sand between 140 cm and 168 cm, and sandy clay loam with strata of sand and sandy loam between 168 cm and 200 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table between 76 cm and 107 cm below the soil surface and are not subject to flooding (Barnhill 1990). Scattered throughout the property, this mapping unit is perhaps best represented along Flo Road near its intersection with Fill Road, an area that supports high-quality Wet Loamy Pine Savanna communities and, in depressional areas, Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna communities.

Pantego (Pn) mucky fine sandy loam (Fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, thermic Umbric Paleaquults)

Very poorly-drained soils on interstream areas. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is mucky fine sandy loam in the upper 25 cm, fine sandy loam between 25 cm and 61 cm, sandy clay loam between 61 cm and 150 cm, clay loam with strata of sandy clay loam between 150 cm and 183 cm, and sandy clay loam with thin strata of loamy sand between 183 cm and 200 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table within 46 cm of the soil surface and are rarely flooded for brief periods (Barnhill 1990). This mapping unit is restricted to a small area in the extreme east-central portion of the property. No savannas, flatwoods, or sandhills are known from this area.

Stallings (St) loamy fine sand (Coarse-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, thermic Aeric Paleaquults)

Somewhat poorly-drained soils on interstream areas and in shallow depressions on convex divides. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is loamy fine sand in the upper 30 cm, fine sandy loam between 30 cm and 114 cm, fine sandy loam with pockets of sandy clay loam between 114 cm and 168 cm, and sandy clay loam with thin layers of fine sandy loam between 168 cm and 200 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table between 46 cm and 76 cm below the soil surface and are not subject to flooding (Barnhill 1992). As with the preceding map unit, Stallings loamy fine sand is restricted to a small area in the extreme east-central portion of the property. No savannas, flatwoods, or sandhills are known from this area.

Woodington (Wo) fine sandy loam (Coarse-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, thermic Typic Paleaquults)

Poorly-drained soils on interstream areas and in depressions near drainageways. Slopes are 0–2%. Typical soil texture is fine sandy loam in the upper 43 cm and fine sandy loam with pockets or strata of loamy fine sand between 43 cm and 200 cm. These soils have a seasonal high water table between 15 cm and 30 cm below the soil surface and are not generally subject to flooding, though low areas may be subject to ponding for brief periods (Barnhill 1990). This mapping unit occurs commonly in the northeastern and southeastern portions of the property, particularly along Bug Ridge Road, at the graded end of Half Moon Road, and along the far eastern portion of Flo Road. Scattered and usually small examples of savannas, flatwoods, and sandhills occur in areas mapped as Woodington fine sandy loam.

Plant Community Types

Seven savanna, flatwoods, or sandhill plant community types were distinguished at SCP following Schafale (2012) (Table 1). Among these community types, three are globally critically imperiled (G1); the remainder are globally imperiled or vulnerable (G2G3). In general, the drier savanna or savanna-like community types (i.e., Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Mesic Transition subtype) and Mesic Pine Savanna (Coastal Plain subtype)) are restricted to slightly-elevated ridges that occur mostly in the central and western portions of the property; other areas on site are typically dominated by wetter community types (i.e., Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype) or one of the four Wet Pine Savanna community types; Fig. 5).

Plant community types in Shaken Creek Preserve included in this work. Community types and their associated ranks follow Schafale (2012). Community types are presented in order of increasing soil moisture – i.e., from driest community type (Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Mesic Transition Subtype)) to wettest (Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna).

S1 = Critically Imperiled, 1–5 occurrences in state; S2 = Imperiled, 6–20 occurrences in state; S3 = Vulnerable, 21–100 occurrences in state; G1 = Critically Imperiled, 1–5 occurrences in world; G2 = Imperiled, 6–20 occurrences in world; G3 = Vulnerable, 21–100 occurrences in world

Plant Community Type (sensu Schafale 2012) State Rank Global Rank
Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Mesic Transition subtype) S2S3 G2G3
Mesic Pine Savanna (Coastal Plain subtype) S2 G2G3
Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype) S3 G3
Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype) S3 G3
Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush Featherling subtype) S1 G1
Wet Loamy Pine Savanna S1 G1
Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna S1 G1
Figure 5.

Approximate locations within Shaken Creek Preserve of the community types treated in this work. All known examples of the four Wet Pine savanna communities on site are mapped. The highest-quality examples of the other communities on site are also shown; however, fire-suppressed examples of some of these community types occur throughout the property and are not mapped. In the legend community types (sensu Schafale 2012) are arranged from driest to wettest (i.e., in order of increasing soil moisture). Areas in which two community types intergrade or co-occur in a mosaic are indicated by including the abbreviations of both community types, separated by a forward slash (e.g., MPS-CP/WPF-T). PL = powerline right-of-way; PSOS-MT = Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Mesic Transition subtype); MPS-CP = Mesic Pine Savanna (Coastal Plain subtype); WPF-T = Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype); SPS-T = Sandy Pine Savannas (Typic subtype); SPS-RF = Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush Featherling subtype); WLPS = Wet Loamy Pine Savanna; VWLPS = Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna. Baseline imagery from Bing Maps Aerial, courtesy of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) (2011).

As is true of most longleaf pine-dominated communities, all the community types treated herein are dependent on frequent, low-intensity fires to maintain their integrity (Figs 6, 7).

Figure 6.

Variations in fire intensity based on vegetation type.

aIn savannas that are frequently burned and lack significant woody vegetation, fires are small enough to be stepped over harmlessly (photo by R. Thornhill).
bFire intensity increases along the woody margins of savannas and flatwoods (photo by R. Thornhill).
Figure 7.

Fire time-series in a Wet Loamy Pine Savanna community type. Many savanna species, particularly bunchgrasses, flower only following growing-season fires. This sequence of photos shows the effects of fire on the flowering of Ctenium aromaticum (toothache grass).

aApril 30, two days after a burn (photo by R. Thornhill).
bJune 27, just less than two months after a burn. Notice the profusion of flowering stalks of Ctenium aromaticum in the burned area (left) versus their near-absence in the unburned (right) area (photo by R. Thornhill).

Though this work examines only savanna or savanna-like community types, it is worth noting that numerous other plant community types are present at SCP. Examples include Blackwater Bottomland Hardwoods (High subtype) along Shaken Creek and Shelter Swamp Creek, High Pocosin (Typic subtype) along the domed west-central portion of the property, and Pond Pine Woodland (Typic subtype and Canebrake subtype) along portions of Williams Road and Half Moon Road (Fig. 8).

Figure 8.

Two community types not formally treated in this thesis: Pocosin and Pond Pine Woodland. The overall species composition of these community types is very similar to (albeit less rich) than the flatwoods and savanna community types formally treated in this work. Indeed, virtually all species in pocosins and pond pine woodlands are also found in flatwoods and/or savannas; consequently, this guide will facilitate the identification of species in pocosins and pond pine woodlands as well as in flatwoods and savannas.

aPocosin: note the dense growth of low (mostly evergreen) shrubs and the absence of tall trees (photo by R. Thornhill).
bPone Pine Woodland: note the dense stand of Pinus serotina (Pond pine) that characterizes this community (photo by R. Thornhill).

In the following discussion community types are presented in order from driest to wettest (i.e., according to increasing soil moisture). For each community type the most similar NatureServe association (see http://www.natureserve.org/explorer) is provided in brackets.

Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Mesic Transition subtype; S2S3, G2G3) [Pinus palustris / Quercus incana / Aristida stricta - Sorghastrum nutans - Anthaenantia villosa Woodland (CEGL003578)]. This community type is somewhat common in the Sandhills and outer Coastal Plain of North Carolina but is rare at SCP. Areas of this community type in which collection efforts have been made comprise approximately 4 ha (10 ac), all in the western portion of the property, particularly along Mule Pen Road. Associated soil series are Baymeade (Arenic Hapludult), Foreston (Aquic Paleudult), and Pactolus (Aquic Quartzipsamment; Barnhill 1990).

The canopy is dominated by Pinus palustris and several oak species, including Quercus falcata Michx., Q. incana W. Bartram, Q. margarettae (Ashe) Small, and Q. marilandica Münchh. var. marilandica. Understory species include Diospyros virginiana L., Gaylussacia dumosa (Andrews) Torr. & A. Gray, G. frondosa (L.) Torr. & A. Gray ex Torr., Sassafras albidum J. Presl, and Vaccinium tenellum Aiton. Vines are not abundant, but Gelsemium sempervirens J. St.-Hil. and Smilax glauca Walter are occasionally present. In the herb layer, Aristida stricta Michx. is abundant, and several dry-mesic species that are not found in the other communities (except sometimes in Mesic Pine Savanna (Coastal Plain subtype)) occur, including Euphorbia ipecacuanhae L., Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. var. curtissii (Clewell) Isely, and Tragia urens L.

This community type is similar to and grades into Mesic Pine Savanna (Coastal Plain Subtype), from which it is distinguished by a substantial component of scrub oaks and by a less diverse herbaceous layer that generally contains fewer legume species. Most examples on site are fire-suppressed; in some cases, fire has not occurred in at least twenty years. To what extent the abundance of oaks in these cases is due simply to fire suppression rather than other environmental factors is unclear. Overall, this community type is not degraded as quickly in the absence of fire as other, wetter community types, which are subject to more rapid shrub invasion.

Mesic Pine Savanna (Coastal Plain subtype; S2, G2G3) [Pinus palustris / Amorpha herbacea var. herbacea / Aristida stricta - Sorghastrum nutans Woodland (CEGL003569)]. This community type is uncommon in North Carolina and rare at SCP. Areas of this community type in which collection efforts have been made comprise approximately 3.6 ha (9 ac), with the largest tract along Indian Grave Road and smaller tracts north of Alligator Lake Road. Sporadic examples of this community type occur in slightly elevated areas within Wet Loamy Pine Savannas and Very Wet Loamy Pine Savannas; however, due to their small size, such examples are not mapped. The soil series most commonly associated with this community type is Pactolus (Aquic Quartzipsamment), though small areas of this commuity type are mapped as Woodington (Typic Paleaquult; Barnhill 1990).

The canopy is dominated by Pinus palustris; oak species are generally absent or sparse. Understory species include Gaylussacia dumosa, G. frondosa, and Vaccinium tenellum. Amorpha georgiana Wilbur and A. herbacea Walter var. herbacea are excellent indicators when present, though these are not usually abundant. Vine species include Apios americana Medik. and Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth., which are generally absent in other communities. The diverse ground layer includes several species not known from other community types, including Danthonia sericea Nutt., Lechea minor L., Lespedeza angustifolia (Pursh) Elliott, and Stylosanthes biflora (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

This community type is similar to Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Mesic Transition subtype), from which it is best distinguished by the absence of scrub oaks or their presence combined with wetland species, and a more diverse herbaceous layer that contains a relatively abundant and diverse component of legume species. It is distinguished from the Wet Pine Savanna community types by the lack of carnivorous plants species, the relative abundance and diversity of legume species, and the dominance of only one bunchgrass species, Aristida stricta, with little or no Sporobolus pinetorum Weakley & P.M. Peterson, no Ctenium aromaticum, and no Muhlenbergia expansa (Poir.) Trin.

Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype; S3, G3) [Pinus palustris / Ilex glabra / Aristida stricta Woodland (CEGL003648)] (Fig. 9)

Figure 9.

Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype)

aA typical wet pine flatwoods (photo by R. Thornhill).
bWhen frequently burned, the physiognomy of wet pine flatwoods resembles that of Pine Savannas; however, species diversity and overall richness, especially at a small scale, is lower in in this community type than in true savannas (photo by R. Thornhill).

The canopy consists of Pinus palustris and Pinus serotina Michx., with occasional Pinus taeda L. In addition to those species listed for the preceding community types, the sometimes-dense shrub layer also contains species characteristic of wetter soils, such as Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray, Kalmia carolina Small, Lyonia mariana (L.) D. Don, Morella pumila (Michx.) Small, Rhododendron atlanticum (Ashe) Rehder, and R. viscosum (L.) Torr. Few vine taxa are present, though Smilax laurifolia L. is sometimes abundant. The dense herbaceous layer is dominated by Aristida stricta, usually with Vaccinium crassifolium Andrews codominant. Pyxidanthera barbulata Michx. and Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) A. Heller are often subdominant and, when abundant, are good indicators of this community type.

The use of the terms “flatwoods” and “savannas” is notoriously variable, and sometimes contradictory, from person to person. In general “flatwoods” has been used to designate savanna-like areas that are shrubbier and/or less floristically diverse than true savannas. This work follows Schafale (2012) in distinguishing flatwoods by their floristic composition and lower small-scale species richness. While Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype) may have a naturally denser shrub layer than savannas, essentially all the community types treated in this work become shrubby in the absence of fire; relative shrub dominance is, therefore, a poor indicator of community type. Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype) often grades into Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype), particularly on Spodosol soils. In these cases Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype) can be distinguished by the abundance of Pyxidanthera barbulata, Pteridium aquilinum var. pseudocaudatum, and Vaccinium crassifolium; the absence or near-absence of bunchgrass species characteristic of wetter sites, particularly Ctenium aromaticum and Muhlenbergia expansa; the absence of carnivorous species (with the exception of species of Drosera L.); and an overall lower small-scale species richness. In fire-suppressed areas, it is often difficult to determine whether the natural community type is Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype) or one of the Wet Pine Savannas, though some insight can be obtained by searching for remnant bunchgrasses and carnivorous plants, particularly species of Sarracenia L.

Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype; S3, G3) [Pinus palustris - Pinus serotina / Ctenium aromaticum - Muhlenbergia expansa - Carphephorus odoratissimus Woodland (CEGL003658)]. Relatively common in North Carolina, this community type is the most common Wet Pine Savanna community at SCP. It often occurs in a mosaic with the closely related Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype). In areas where these two community types co-occur, Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype) generally occurs on slightly-elevated, drier sites and Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype) on sites that are somewhat lower and wetter. The total area occupied by this community type at SCP is estimated at 13 ha (33 ac), with another 24 ha (60 ac) existing in a mosaic with Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype). Associated soil series are Leon (Aeric haplaquod) and Mandarin (Typic haplohumod; Barnhill 1990).

Canopy species are Pinus palustris and P. serotina. The composition of the shrub layer is geneally the same as Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype), though shrub density is often somewhat lower. As above, vines are sparse, but Smilax laurifolia is sometimes abundant, particularly in unburned areas. The species-rich herbaceous layer usually contains all the species present in Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype) plus many more, including several grasses (Andropogon glaucopsis Steud., A. glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb., Sporobolus pinetorum, and, less commonly, Ctenium aromaticum), carnivorous plants (Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis and Sarracenia flava L.), and other herbs (Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C. Presl and Polygala lutea L.).

While Pleea tenuifolia Michx. is often found in Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype), occurrences are scattered, and the species as a whole comprises only a minor component of the flora. In the closely-related Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush Featherling subtype), Pleea tenuifolia is a dominant species, generally as or more abundant than any single bunchgrass species. Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype) can be distinguished from Wet Loamy Pine Savanna and Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna by its coarser-textured soils and by the absence of a suite of species characteristic of wetter, richer sites, including Chaptalia tomentosa Vent., Cirsium virginianum (L.) Michx., Eryngium spp., Lysimachia loomisii Torr., Polygala hookeri Torr. & A. Gray, P. ramosa Elliott, and many species of Rhynchospora Vahl.

Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush Featherling subtype; S1, G1) [Pinus palustris - Pinus serotina / Pleea tenuifolia - Aristida stricta Woodland (CEGL003661)] (Fig. 10)

Figure 10.

Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush Featherling subtype)

aA super-abundance of the white-flowered Pleea tenuifolia (Rush featherling) characterizes this community type (photos by R. Thornhill).

This community type is very similar to Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype); both share the same canopy and vine species and most of the same herb species. However, the Rush Featherling subtype is distinguished by the dominance of Pleea tenuifolia, whose abundant white flowers in early autumn give rise to the colloquial community name “Snow in September.” The thick rhizomes of Pleea tenuifolia produce dense, broad clumps that create a somewhat hummocky topography. Species richness and diversity are sometimes lower in the Rush Featherling subtype than in the Typic subtype due to the sheer dominance of Pleea tenuifolia. The environmental factors responsible for this community type are unclear. At SCP both the Rush Featherling and Typic subtypes occur on Leon soils and in close proximity to one another. However, the author has noticed that Pleea tenuifolia is sometimes abundant in local depressions within the Typic subtype, an observation that suggests that P. tenuifolia possibly favors wetter soils. Perhaps, then, the Rush featherling subtype has a somewhat higher water table than the Typic subtype, though this hypothesis has not been tested.

Wet Loamy Pine Savanna (S1, G1) [Pinus palustris - Pinus serotina / Ctenium aromaticum - Muhlenbergia expansa - Rhynchospora latifolia Woodland (CEGL003660)] (Fig. 11a)

Figure 11.

Two Loamy Pine Savanna community types

aThis Wet Loamy Pine Savanna, treeless and dominated by the charismatic Sarracenia flava (yellow pitcher plant), is one of the most stunning vistas in Shaken Creek Preserve – or perhaps anywhere (photo by R. Thornhill)!
bVery Wet Loamy Pine Savannas harbor a suite of exceptionally rare species, often found in slight depressions, like the narrow one running from left to right in this photograph (photo by R. Thornhill).
Figure 12.

Distribution of taxa by habit and community type in the savannas and flatwoods in Shaken Creek Preserve ("SCP") and vicinity (i.e., within two mile of Shaken Creek Preserve, including Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area; “SR+V”). “Taxa” includes species, subspecies, and varieties. Values include taxa vouchered or known only from reports. Suppl. material 5

aTaxonomic distribution of herbaceous taxa. Families represented by ≥ 8 herbaceous taxa in either Shaken Creek Preserve or in the vicinity are represented individually; families represented by < 8 herbaceous taxa in both Shaken Creek Preserve and in the vicinity are subsumed in the “Other families” category.
bTaxonomic distribution of tree and shrub taxa. Families represented by ≥ 2 tree or shrub taxa in either Shaken Creek Preserve or in the vicinity are represented individually; families represented by only 1 tree or shrub taxon in both Shaken Creek Preserve and in the vicinity comprise the “Other families” category.
cTaxonomic distribution of vines (herbaceous or woody plants that climb by means of holdfasts or by twining). All families containing vine taxa are included.
dDistribution by community type of taxa collected or reported from Shaken Creek Preserve. Values above columns indicate the total number of taxa (i.e., rare and non-rare) collected or reported from each community type. "Rare taxa” are those taxa listed by the NC Natural Heritage Program as Significantly Rare or Watch List (Gadd and Finnegan 2012). Community types follow Schafale (2012) and are arranged according to increasing soil moisture (i.e., from the driest to wettest community type). Abbreviations are as follows: PSOS-MT = Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Mesic Transition subtype); MPS-CP = Mesic Pine Savanna (Coastal Plain subtype); WPF-T = Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype); SPS-T = Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype); SPS-RF = Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush Featherling subtype); WLPS = Wet Loamy Pine Savanna; VWLPS = Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna.

The canopy is dominated by Pinus palustris and P. serotina, with occasional P. taeda. The sparse to nearly absent understory consists of species similar to other Wet Pine Savanna community types. Vines are scarce, though several Smilax species treated in this work have been collected in thickets along the roadside edge of Wet Loamy Pine Savannas. The herbaceous layer is very diverse and generally includes all taxa present in the Sandy Pine Savanna communities plus many other taxa. Among bunchgrasses, Ctenium aromaticum, Muhlenbergia expansa, and Sporobolus pinetorum dominate or co-dominate with Aristida stricta. Herbs that are often present in Wet Loamy Pine Savannas but not in Sandy Pine Savannas include Chaptalia tomentosa, Cirsium virginianum, Eryngium L. spp., Lysimachia loomisii, Polygala hookeri, P. ramosa, and many Rhynchospora spp.

As their names imply, both Loamy Pine Savanna community types are distinguished from Sandy Pine Savanna community types by somewhat finer-textured soils. In general, finer-textured soils are more fertile than and have a higher water-holding capacity than coarser-textured soils—conditions that would seem to be favorable to the growth of most plant species. These environmental factors may explain, at least partially, the exceptionally high species richness of the Loamy Pine Savanna communities (Schafale 2012). Wet Loamy Pine Savannas are distinguished from Mesic Pine Savannas (Coastal Plain subtype) by the abundance of wetland plants and the near absence of legumes. Wet Loamy Pine Savannas are distinguished from Very Wet Loamy Pine Savannas by a lower abundance of boggy species (e.g., Eriocaulon decangulare L. var. decangulare, Lachnocaulon anceps (Walter) Morong, and Taxodium ascendens Brongn.) and by the absence of a suite of rare species (Allium species 1, Carex lutea LeBlond, and Thalictrum cooleyi H.E. Ahles).

Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna (S1, G1) [Pinus palustris - Pinus serotina / Magnolia virginiana / Sporobolus teretifolius - Carex striata Woodland (CEGL004500)] (Fig. 11b)

Canopy species include those of other Wet Pine Savannas, though Pinus palustris is often less abundant. Taxodium ascendens, not usually found in the other communities, also frequently occurs. Shrub species that are more common in this community type than in others include Morella cerifera (L.) Small and Ilex myrtifolia Walter. Vines are generally uncommon, though Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. and Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze var. radicans are more likely to be found in this community type, particularly along swampy margins or in unburned sites, than in other community types. The herbaceous layer may include all taxa present in other Wet Pine Savannas plus an additional suite of rare species: Allium species 1, Carex lutea, and Thalictrum cooleyi, all of which are strong indicators for this community type. Aristida stricta is often scarce or even entirely absent, replaced by other bunchgrass species, particularly Muhlenbergia expansa. Many wetland herbs that are sometimes found in Wet Loamy Pine Savannas are often much more abundant in Very Wet Loamy Pine Savannas. Examples inlcude Carex striata Michx., Chaptalia tomentosa, and Eryngium spp. Boggy species, like Eriocaulon decangulare var. decangulare and Lachnocaulon anceps, which are restricted to borrow pits and depressions in other community types, are also more likely to occur in the savannas proper of this community type.

Globally, Very Wet Loamy Pine Savannas have a small, patchy distribution, and the environmental factors responsible for their occurrence are unclear. As noted by Schafale (2012), the abundance of wetland species would seem to indicate a wetter soil than that of Wet Loamy Pine Savannas. In most cases, however, Wet Loamy Pine Savannas grade directly into swamps or pocosins on their wet edges; why in rare cases Very Wet Loamy Pine Savannas form in these ecotonal positions is uncertain. The natural fire frequency of Very Wet Loamy Pine Savannas is also unclear but may be somewhat lower than that of the other savanna communities due to a higher water table and a suspected slightly higher natural shrub density. Some Very Wet Loamy Pine Savannas exhibit localized inclusions of calcium (in the form of marl) that increase soil pH in small areas (Schafale 2012). Rare in the Coastal Plain of NC, these inclusions were once thought to explain the curious distribution of this community type; however, many calcium deposits underlying Very Wet Loamy Pine Savannas appear to be several feet below the soil surface, where they would presumably exert little impact on the pH of the upper portion of the soil in which most plants root. Moreover, one study (Taggart 2012) suggested that even in Very Wet Loamy Pine Savannas in which inclusions of high pH have been reported, most of the soil throughout the savanna is still strongly acidic. Further research into the environmental factors associated with this community type is certainly warranted.

Materials and methods

Preliminary Species List

A preliminary list of plant taxa reported from SCP by LeBlond (2000) and by the Carolina Vegetation Survey (Peet et al. 2004) was compiled. Taxa collected or reported from various tracts comprising Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area were also included; for these taxa, the following sources were referenced: LeBlond and Weakley (1991), LeBlond (1999), LeBlond (2000), Taggart (2010). Finally, taxon reports for Pender and Onslow Counties were obtained from the US Southeastern Flora Atlas (http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/seflora/firstviewer.htm), a resource that incorporates pertinent records from the USDA PLANTS Database (United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service 2012), Radford et al. (1968), and any specimens databased to-date by several herbaria, including those of North Carolina State University (NCSC) and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (NCU). Culled from this initial checklist were taxa either reported by the various sources in habitats other than those studied in the present thesis or, in the case of the county records obtained through the Southeastern Flora Atlas, taxa whose habitat description in Weakley (2010) did not include savannas, flatwoods, or similar habitats. The resulting condensed list was subsequently used to search the herbarium collections of Duke University (DUKE), NCSC, NCU, and the University of North Carolina Wilmington (WNC) for any historic collections made from pertinent habitats in SCP, in tracts now comprising Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area, or in other areas within two miles of SCP (Fig. 1).

Field Work

Field work began in August 2010 and continued through October 2012. In order to capture the floristic diversity of SCP throughout the growing season, collecting trips (N=81) were made approximately weekly from mid-March 2011 through November 2011, biweekly from December 2011 to February 2012, weekly from early March 2012 through early September 2012, and biweekly from early September 2012 through mid-October 2012. Collecting efforts in 2011 centered on the extensive Wet Pine Savanna and Wet Pine Flatwoods community types along Flo Road and Half Moon Road (Fig. 2). In 2012 collection efforts extended to include all Wet Pine Savanna and Wet Pine Flatwoods community types throughout the property and the relatively few examples of Mesic Pine Savanna and Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill community types on site (Fig. 5). Voucher specimens were collected in duplicate (or more) and deposited at NCSC. In addition, leaf samples were taken from most vouchers, desiccated in silica gel, and deposited in the NCSC DNA bank (see herbarium.ncsu.edu), where available for use by the scientific community. Specimen determinations were made by Robert Thornhill and were verified by the following: Richard LeBlond (Dichanthelium), Dr. Jon Stucky (Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Poaceae excluding Dichanthelium), and Dr. Alexander Krings (all other taxa). A list of all voucher specimens and associated data (except location data for rare or over-collected taxa) can be found in Suppl. material 6.

Checklist

Following the completion of field work, herbarium research, and a digital querying of rare taxa reports within 2 miles of SCP (using the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program's MapViewer application http://www.ncnhp.org), a data-rich checklist of all the vascular flora collected or reported from savannas, flatwoods, or sandhill community types in SCP or the vicinity was prepared. (The checklist is available in spreadsheet format in Suppl. material 7.) Within the checklist, taxa are organized by major plant groups (i.e., Pteridophytes; Gymnosperms; Monocotyledons; Basal Angiosperms, Magnoliids, and Eudicotyledons), then alphabetically by family, genus, and species. Each taxon is accompanied by a brief entry that contains the following three sections:

  • Conservation Status: For rare taxa (i.e., those listed by Gadd and Finnegan 2012), status and rank designations are provided in the following order: states status, federal status; state rank, global rank. The following abbreviations are used: STATE STATUS: E = Endangered; T = Threatened; SC = Special Concern: -V = Vulnerable, -H = Historical; SR = Significantly Rare: -L = Limited to North Carolina and adjacent states (endemic/near endemic), -T = Throughout, -P = Periphery of Range, -O = Other; W = Watch List: W1 = rare but relatively secure, W2 = rare but taxonomically questionable, W5B = exploited plants, W7 = rare and poorly known. FEDERAL STATUS: E = Endangered; FSC = Federal Species of Concern. STATE RANK: SH = historical (known only from historical populations); S1 = Critically imperiled, 1–5 populations in state; S2 = Imperiled, 6–20 populations in state; S3 = Vulnerable, 21–100 populations in state; S4 = Apparently secure, 101–1000 populations in state; S5 = Secure, 1001+ populations in state. GLOBAL RANK: G1 = Critically imperiled, 1–5 populations in world; G2 = Imperiled, 6–20 populations in world; G3 = Vulnerable, 21–100 populations in world; G4 = Apparently secure, 101–1000 populations in world; G5 = Secure, 1001+ populations in world; T# = Global rank of a subspecies or variety; Q = Questionable taxonomy; ? = Uncertain. (For a synopsis of all taxa of conservation concern treated in this work, see Tables 2, 3.)
  • Distribution: The distribution of taxa is provided by listing the community types in which the taxa have been collected or reported within the study area. For taxa collected or reported from SCP, the community types (sensu Schafale 2012) in which the taxa occur on site are listed from driest to wettest (i.e., in order of increasing soil moisture) and are abbreviated as follows (see Table 1): PSOS-MT = Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill (Mesic Transition subtype); MPS-CP = Mesic Pine Savanna (Coastal Plain subtype); WPF-T = Wet Pine Flatwoods (Typic subtype); SPS-T = Sandy Pine Savanna (Typic subtype); SPS-RF = Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush Featherling subtype); WLPS = Wet Loamy Pine Savanna; VWLPS = Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna. For taxa not collected or reported from SCP but collected in the vicinity by Taggart (2010) or reported from the vicinity by LeBlond (1999) or LeBlond (2000), community types as provided by those authors are given. For all other taxa (i.e., those taxa collected or reported from the vicinity by sources other than the afoermentioned), habitat according to Weakley (2012) is provided in lieu of community types.
  • Notes: Within each "notes" section, several bits of information are provided in the following order: 1) an estimate of abundance adadpted from Palmer et al. (1995) (see Table 4) for taxa collected by the senior author in SCP; 2) flowering and fruiting phenology from Weakley (2012) and supplemented, in some cases, with personal observation; 3) voucher information from specimens deposited in the following herbaria: DUKE, NCSC, NCU, and WNC. Within a list of vouchers, specimens collected in SCP are listed first, followed by specimens collected from the vicinity, which are arranged alphabetically by site name, then by tract name (if within Sandy Run), and finally by collector last name. For taxa of conservation concern that were collected in Sandy Run, the name of the tract in which the voucher was collected is purposefully omitted; and 4) in brackets, synonymy with Radford et al. (1968), the Flora of North America Project, and Weakley (2012).

List of rare taxa (i.e., "Significantly Rare" or rarer sensu Gadd and Finnegan 2012) collected or reported from savannas, flatwoods, or sandhills in Shaken Creek Preserve or the vicinity (i.e., within a 2-mile radius of Shaken Creek Preserve, including Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area). Status and rank designations follow Gadd and Finnegan (2012). Parentheses around a taxon indicate that the taxon is not known from Shaken Creek Preserve but is known from the vicinity. Taxa for which voucher specimens have been collected (by the senior author or others) are indicated with a "yes" in the second column. The taxonomy followed in this work and that of Gadd and Finnegan (2012) differ in the following instances: 1) Gadd and Finnegan (2012) do not report infraspecific taxa within Arnoglossum ovatum (Walter) H. Rob.; therefore, the status and ranks listed in the table below for A. ovatum var. lanceolatum (Nutt.) D.B. Ward apply to the species, not just the variety (though var. lanceolatum is currently the only infraspecific taxon within A. ovatum reported for NC (Weakley (2012))); 2) the recently named Coreopsis palustris Sorrie is listed by Gadd and Finnegan (2012) as C. helianthoides Beadle; 3) Packera paupercula (Michx.) Á. Löve & D. Löve is listed by Gadd and Finnegan (2012) as P. crawfordii (Britton) A.M. Mahoney & R.R. Kowal (see the note in the Identification Key to Packera for a brief discussion regarding the taxonomy of this species and its treatment in this work). Finally, the infraspecific global rank given by Gadd and Finnegan (2012) and reported here for Rhynchospora pinetorum Britton & Small is probably a reflection of the recognition of that taxon by many authors as R. globularis (Chapman) Small var. pinetorum (Small) Gale.

State Status: E = Endangered; T = Threatened; SC = Special Concern: -V = Vulnerable, -H = Historical; SR = Significantly Rare: -L = Limited to North Carolina and adjacent states (endemic/near endemic), -T = Throughout, -P = Periphery of Range, -O = Other. Federal Status: E = Endangered; FSC = Federal Species of Concern. State Rank: SH = historical (known only from historical populations); S1 = Critically imperiled, 1–5 populations in state; S2 = Imperiled, 6–20 populations in state; S3 = Vulnerable, 21–100 populations in state. Global Rank: G1 = Critically imperiled, 1–5 populations in world; G2 = Imperiled, 6–20 populations in world; G3 = Vulnerable, 21–100 populations in world; G4 = Apparently secure, 101–1000 populations in world; G5 = Secure, 1001+ populations in world; T# = Global rank of a subspecies or variety; Q = Questionable taxonomy; ? = Uncertain.

Taxon Vouchered? State Status Federal Status State Rank Global Rank
(Agalinis virgata Raf.) SR-P S2 G3G4Q
Agrostis altissima (Walter) Tuck. SR-T S2 G4
Allium species 1 Yes SR-L FSC S1S2 G1G2
Amorpha georgiana Wilbur Yes E FSC S2 G3
(Andropogon mohrii (Hack.) Hack. ex Vasey) Yes T S2 G4?
Aristida simpliciflora Chapm. Yes E S1S2 G3G4
Arnoglossum ovatum (Walter) H. Rob. var. lanceolatum (Nutt.) D.B. Ward Yes SR-P S2 G4G5
Asclepias pedicellata Walter Yes SC-V S3 G4
(Baccharis glomeruliflora Pers.) Yes SC-H S1 G4
Carex lutea LeBlond Yes E E S2 G2
Cirsium lecontei Torr. & A. Gray Yes SC-V S2 G2G3
Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr. SR-O S3 G5
(Coreopsis palustris Sorrie) Yes SR-P S1S2 G3G4Q
Coreopsis species 1 Yes SR-L S1 G1?
Dichanthelium caerulescens (Hack. ex Hitchc.) Correll Yes E S1S2 G2G3
Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis Yes SC-V FSC S3 G3
(Eryngium aquaticum L. var. ravenelii (A. Gray) Mathias & Constance) Yes SR-P S1 G4T2T4Q
(Helenium pinnatifidum (Schwein. ex Nutt.) Rydb.) SR-P S2 G4
Hypericum brachyphyllum (Spach) Steud. Yes SC-V S1S2 G5
Hypoxis sessilis L. Yes SR-P SH G4
Isolepis carinata Hook. & Arn. ex Torr. Yes SR-P S1 G5
(Linum floridanum (Planch.) Trel. var. chrysocarpum) C.M. Rogers Yes T S1S2 G5?T3?
Lysimachia asperulifolia Poir. Yes E E S3 G3
Muhlenbergia torreyana (Schult.) Hitchc. Yes SC-V S2 G3
(Packera paupercula (Michx.) Á. Löve & D. Löve) Yes SR-T S1 G2G3
Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. var. puritanorum Svenson Yes SR-P S1 G5T4
Parnassia caroliniana Michx. Yes T FSC S2 G3
Pinguicula pumila Michx. Yes E S2 G4
(Plantago sparsiflora Michx.) Yes T FSC S1S2 G3
Platanthera integra (Nutt.) A. Gray ex L.C. Beck Yes SC-V S2 G3G4
(Platanthera nivea (Nutt.) Luer) T S1 G5
Polygala hookeri Torr. & A. Gray Yes SC-V S2S3 G3
Pycnanthemum setosum Nutt. Yes SR-T S2 G4
Rhynchospora decurrens Chapm. Yes T FSC S1S2 G3G4
(Rhynchospora divergens Chapm. ex M.A. Curtis) Yes SR-P S2 G4
Rhynchospora galeana Naczi, W.M. Knapp & G. Moor Yes SR-P S2S3 G3G4
Rhynchospora microcarpa Baldwin ex A. Gray Yes SR-P S2 G5
Rhynchospora pinetorum Britton & Small Yes SR-T S2 G5?T3?
Rhynchospora thornei Kral Yes SC-V FSC S2 G3
(Scirpus lineatus Michx.) Yes T S2 G4
Scleria baldwinii (Torr.) Steud. Yes T S2 G4
(Scleria species 1) Yes SR-L FSC S1 G1
(Scleria verticillata Muhl. ex Willd.) Yes SR-P S2 G5
Spiranthes eatonii Ames ex P.M. Br. Yes E S2 G2G4
Spiranthes laciniata (Small) Ames Yes SC-V S2 G4G5
(Spiranthes longilabris Lindl.) E S1 G3
Thalictrum cooleyi H.E. Ahles Yes E E S2 G2
(Trillium pusillum Michx. var. pusillum) E FSC S2 G3T2
(Xyris floridana (Kral) E.L. Bridges & Orzell) T S1 G5
(Xyris scabrifolia R.M. Harper) Yes SC-V FSC S2 G3

List of North Carolina Watch List taxa collected or reported from savannas, flatwoods, or sandhills in Shaken Creek Preserve or the vicinity (i.e., within a 2-mile radius of Shaken Creek Preserve, including Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area). Status and rank designations follow Gadd and Finnegan (2012) with the exception of Paspalum praecox, which lacks varietal recognition in Gadd and Finnegan (2012) but which is here treated as comprising two varieties, for which the status and ranks are simply the same as those given by Gadd and Finnegan (2012) for the species. Parentheses around a taxon indicate that the taxon is not known from Shaken Creek Preserve but is known from the vicinity. Taxa for which voucher specimens have been collected (by the senior author or others) are indicated with a "Y" in the second column.

State Status: W = Watch List: W1 = rare but relatively secure, W2 = rare but taxonomically questionable, W5B = exploited plants, W7 = rare and poorly known. State Rank: S2 = Imperiled, 6–20 populations in state; S3 = Vulnerable, 21–100 populations in state; S4 = Apparently secure, 101–1000 populations in state; S5 = Secure, 1001+ populations in state. Global Rank: G2 = Imperiled, 6–20 populations in world; G3 = Vulnerable, 21–100 populations in world; G4 = Apparently secure, 101–1000 populations in world; G5 = Secure, 1001+ populations in world; T# = Global rank of a subspecies or variety; Q = Questionable taxonomy; ? = Uncertain.

Taxon Vouchered State Status State Rank Global Rank
Agalinis aphylla (Nutt.) Raf. Yes W1 S3 G3G4
Agalinis linifolia (Nutt.) Britton Yes W1 S3 G4?
Agalinis obtusifolia Raf. Yes W1 S2S3 G4G5Q
Aletris farinosa L. Yes W5B S5 G5
Amphicarpum amphicarpon (Pursh) Nash Yes W1 S3 G4
Andropogon perangustatus Nash Yes W1 S2S3 G4
Andropogon virginicus L. var. decipiens C.S. Campb. Yes W7 S1S2 G5T4
Anthenantia rufa (Elliott) Schult. Yes W1 S2 G5
Asclepias longifolia Michx. Yes W1 S2S3 G4G5
Bartonia verna Raf. ex Barton Yes W1 S2 G5?
Calamovilfa brevipilis (Torr.) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw. Yes W1 S3 G4
(Carex chapmanii Steud.) W1 S3 G3
(Carex physorhyncha Liebm. ex Steud.) W1 S2S3 G5T5
Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray Yes W5B S5 G5
Cleistesiopsis divaricata (L.) Pansarin & F. Barros Yes W1 S3 G4
Cleistesiopsis oricamporum P.M. Br. W7 S2 G3?
Coelorachis rugosa (Nutt.) Nash Yes W1 S3 G5
Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould var. roanokense (Ashe) LeBlond Yes W1 S2 G5T4?
Dichanthelium ovale (Elliott) Gould & C.A. Clark var. ovale Yes W1 S2S3 G5T5
Eleocharis equisetoides (Elliott) Torr. Yes W1 S3 G4
Eryngium yuccifolium Michx. var. synchaetum A. Gray ex J.M. Coult. & Rose Yes W2 S2 G5T5
Eupatorium recurvans Small Yes W7 S1? G3G4Q
Ludwigia maritima R.M. Harper Yes W7 S2S3 G5
Lycopus amplectens Raf. Yes W1 S3 G5
Lysimachia loomisii Torr. Yes W1 S3 G3
Oenothera fruticosa L. var. unguiculata Fernald Yes W7 S2S3 G5T2T3
Paspalum praecox Walter var. curtisianum (Steud.) Vasey Yes W1 S2S3 G4
Paspalum praecox Walter var. praecox Yes W1 S2S3 G4
Rhynchospora nitens (Vahl) A. Gray Yes W1 S3 G4?
(Rhynchospora oligantha A. Gray) Yes W1 S3 G4
Rhynchospora pallida M.A. Curtis Yes W1 S3 G3
(Rhynchospora scirpoides (Torr.) Griseb.) Yes W1 S3 G4
Rhynchospora wrightiana Boeck. Yes W1 S3 G5
Sarracenia flava L. Yes W5B S3S4 G5?
Sarracenia rubra Walter ssp. rubra Yes W5B S3 G4T3T4
Scleria georgiana Core Yes W1 S3 G4
Solidago gracillima Torr. & A. Gray Yes W1 S3 G4?
Solidago pulchra Small Yes W1 S3 G3
Sporobolus pinetorum Weakley & P.M. Peterson Yes W1 S3 G3
(Syngonanthus flavidulus (Michx.) Ruhland) Yes W1 S3 G5
Viola brittoniana Pollard Yes W7 S2? G4G5
Xyris brevifolia Michx. Yes W1 S3 G4G5
(Xyris flabelliformis Chapm.) W1 S1 G4
(Xyris iridifolia Chapm.) Yes W7 S2 G4G5T4T5
Xyris species 1 Yes W2 S2 G2

Descriptions for estimating abundance of taxa collected by the senior author in Shaken Creek Preserve (adapted from Palmer et al. 1995).

Density Description
Abundant Dominant or co-dominant in one or more common communities
Frequent Numerous in one or more common communities but not dominant in any common community
Occasional Widely scattered in several communities, including one or more common communities
Infrequent Few individuals or colonies but found in several locations or communities
Rare Few individuals or colonies limited to one or very few locations or communities

Six taxa included in this guide bear numeric "placeholder" epithets, as currently listed in Weakley (2012). Of these six taxa, the following four are presumed to be new to science: Allium species 1, Coreopsis species 1, Scleria species 1, and Xyris species 1. The remaining two taxa–Dichanthelium species 3 and D. species 12–were recognized by previous authors (see synonymy for those taxa in the checklist); however, the appropriate combination has yet to be made within Dichanthelium.Based on field observations by the senior author, instances of known hybridization appear to be rare in the flora. (Actual hybridization events may be more common but are beyond the scope of this research.) One notable exception, however, is Sarracenia × catesabaei Elliott (= S. flava L. × S. purpurea L.). (See the key to Sarracenia for a discussion of hybridization within that genus.) Hybrids are nottreated as separate taxa in this guide.

Identification Keys

Dichotomous keys were created to all taxa collected or reported from savannas, flatwoods, or sandhill community types in SCP and the vicinity (i.e., in areas within two miles of SCP, including all tracts within Sandy Run Savannas State Natural Area). The order of the keys follows that of the checklist (i.e., a key is first provided to four main vascular plant groups, then within each of these groups, keys proceed alphabetically by family and then genus). In addition, three “auxiliary keys” are provided: a vegetative key to common savanna bunchgrasses (following the key to genera of Poaceae); a key to herbaceous eudicotyledonous taxa with simple, opposite, more-or-less ovate leaves (following the key to families of basal angiosperms, magnoliids, and eudicotyledons); and a vegetative key to frequently confused ericaceous subshrubs (following the key to genera of Ericaceae). Keys were adapted from Radford et al. (1968), the cited Flora of North America treatments, Weakley (2012), and personal notes. In the keys exceptional values for numeric character ranges are indicated in parentheses (e.g., leaf blade 1–2(–4) cm wide). Definitions, explanatory notes, and exceptional non-numeric character states are also placed in parentheses (e.g., corolla pink (rarely white)).

During herbarium searches, vouchers of taxa collected by others in SCP or in the vicinity but not collected by the senior author in SCP were carefully examined. In five cases the senior author disagreed with the determinations of such vouchers. Nevertheless, since the original determinations were always of taxa whose habitat and distribution make them plausible components of the flora, these taxa were included in the keys, where indicated by a plus (+) symbol. These taxa are not, however, formally treated in this work (i.e., they do not appear in the checklist) and are not included in summary statistics. Additionally, forty-four taxa that are not known from the habitats treated in this work but that often occur in roadsides or other disturbed areas immediately adjacent to such habitats, are also included in the keys, where indicated by a double-dagger (‡) symbol. These taxa, too, are neither formally treated in this work nor included in the summary statistics. Finally, though only one exotic taxon is reported in this work, several of the forty-four aforementioned taxa (those strictly of roadsides or disturbed areas) are exotic (i.e., not native to the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, sensu Weakley 2012). Exotic taxa are indicated in the keys with an asterisk (*).

Data resources

Dichotomous keys were adapted from Radford et al. (1968), the cited Flora of North America treatments, Weakley (2012), and personal notes. Taxonomic concepts and nomenclature usually follow Weakley (2012) but in some cases follow the cited Flora of North America treatments. Status and ranks for taxa of conservation concern (i.e., those taxa listed by Gadd and Finnegan 2012) were adopted from Gadd and Finnegan (2012); see Tables 2, 3). Plant community types were identified using Schafale (2012). Line drawings were obtained from the following public domain works: Britton and Brown (1913), Hitchcock (1950), United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (2012). All photographs, with the exception of those for Carya tomentosa, were taken by Robert Thornhill.

PTERIDOPHYTES

Blechnaceae

Woodwardia areolata (L.) Moore

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, VWLPS), borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 

Occasional. May-Sep. Thornhill 752, 876 (NCSU). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 78 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley].

Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), borrow pits, ditches, roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 570, 597, 616, 798 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 149 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Dennstaedtiaceae

Pteridium aquilinum var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) A. Heller

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), roadsides.
Notes: 
Abundant. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 836, 1425 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 148 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA; = P. aquilinum (L.) Kuhn ssp. pseudocaudatum (Clute) Hultén sensu Weakley]

Lycopodiaceae

Lycopodiella alopecuroides (L.) Cranfill

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 232, 785, 850 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 509 (WNC!). [< Lycopodium alopecuroides L. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Lycopodiella appressa (Chapm.) Cranfill

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 810, 851 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 515 (WNC!). [= Lycopodium appressum (Chapm.) F.E. Lloyd & Underw. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Pseudolycopodiella caroliniana (L.) Holub

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 758, 958 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 508 (WNC!).

Osmundaceae

Osmunda spectabilis Willd.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. Mar–Jun. Thornhill 202, 300 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 112 (WNC!). [= O. regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C. Presl

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Mar–May. Thornhill 201, 223, 255 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 75 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 67806 (DUKE!; as Osmunda cinnamomea). [= Osmunda cinnamomea L. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella apoda (L.) C. Morren

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 1480 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 124 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Sorrie 6385 (NCU!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

GYMNOSPERMS

Cuppressaceae

Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Depressions in pine savannas, ditches, borrow pits.
Notes: 
Rare. Mar–Apr; Oct–Nov. Thornhill 757 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Sieren 3676 (WNC!), Taggart SARU 69 (WNC!); Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Weakley 7219 (NCU!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana L.

Distribution: 
Thickets along roadside edges of wet pine savannas.
Notes: 
Rare. Jan–Feb; Oct–Nov. Thornhill 1381 (NCSC). [= J. virginiana L. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Taxodium ascendens Brongn.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), ditches, borrow pits.
Notes: 
Frequent. Mar–Apr; Oct. Thornhill 474 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53703 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 245 (WNC!). [= RAB; = T. distichum L. var. imbricarium (Nutt.) Croom sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Pinaceae

Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.

Native status: 
nonnative
Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jan–Feb.; Oct–Nov. Planted on site as a timber tree prior to site’s purchase by The Nature Conservancy. Thornhill 1554 (NCSC). [< P. elliottii Engelm. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Pinus palustris Mill.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Mar–Apr; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1066, 1067 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 20 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Pinus serotina Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Apr; Aug (or any time of the year in response to fire). Thornhill 472 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 63779 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 18 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Pinus taeda L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Mar–Apr; Oct–Nov. Thornhill 471, 1026 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 53 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

MONOCOTYLEDONS

Agavaceae

Yucca filamentosa L.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Late Apr–early Jun; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1011 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 157 (WNC!). [= Y. filamentosa L. var. filamentosa sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Amaryllidaceae

Allium species 1

Conservation status: 
SR-L, FSC; S1S2, G1G2.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Late Aug–early Oct; late Sep–Nov. Thornhill 839, 1009 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: LeBlond 6362 (NCU!); Sandy Run: LeBlond 5541, 6361, 6363, 6370, 6377 (NCU!), Leonard 7581, 7582, 7584 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 452 (WNC!). [= Weakley]

Bromeliaceae

Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L.

Distribution: 
Swampy margins of wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr–Jun. Thornhill 190 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 436 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Burmanniaceae

Burmannia capitata (Walter ex J.F. Gmel.) Mart.

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS), borrow pits, roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Nov. Thornhill 1472 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 651 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Colchicaceae

Uvularia puberula Michx.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Early Apr–early May; Aug–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 46 (WNC!; as U. puberula var. nitida). [= U. pudica (Walter) Fernald sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Cyperaceae

Bulbostylis stenophylla (Elliott) C.B. Clarke

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53633 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Carex chapmanii Steud.

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Apr–May. Reported from Sandy Run by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Carex elliottii Schwein. & Torr.

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine savannas (SPS-T), borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Jun. Thornhill 532, 1271 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 275 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Carex glaucescens Elliott

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 12, 620, 692, 1100 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 486 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53685 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Carex leptalea subsp. harperi (Fernald) Calder & Roy L. Taylor

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
May–Jun. Reported from Sandy Run [Watkins] by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve (in the pertinent habitats) by the senior author. [< C. leptalea Wahlenb. sensu RAB; = FNA; = C. leptalea Wahlenb. var. harperi (Fernald) sensu Weakley]

Carex lonchocarpa Willd. ex Spreng.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Jul. Thornhill 369, 456, 462, 463, 1395 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 606 (WNC!). [= C. folliculata L. var. australis L.H. Bailey sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Carex lutea LeBlond

Conservation status: 
State E, Fed E; S2, G2.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–early Jun. Sorrie 10149 (NCU!), Thornhill 1277 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 88, SARU 701, SARU 702, SARU 703 (WNC!). [= FNA, Weakley]

Carex physorhyncha Liebm. ex Steud.

Conservation status: 
W1; S2S3, G5T5.
Distribution: 
Dry woodlands.
Notes: 
Late Mar–May. Reported from Sandy Run by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB; = C. albicans Willd. ex Spreng. var. australis (L.H. Bailey) Rettig sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Carex striata Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Jun. Thornhill 1272, 1280, 1290 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 607 (WNC!; as C. striata var. brevis). [= C. walteriana L.H. Bailey sensu RAB; = FNA; > C. striata var. brevis L.H. Bailey, C. striata var. striata sensu Weakley]

Carex venusta Dewey

Distribution: 
Boggy depressions in pine savannas.
Notes: 
May–Jun. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve (in pertinent habitats) by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Sorrie 6395 (NCU!; as C. oblita). [= RAB, FNA; > C. venusta Dewey, C. oblita Steud. sensu Weakley]

Cladium jamaicense Crantz

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 1361 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 575 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr.

Conservation status: 
SR-O; S3, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Sep. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Cyperus haspan L.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve (in perintent habitats) by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 659 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53635 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Dulichium arundinaceum var. arundinaceum (L.) Britton

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine savannas (WLPS), ditches.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 1387, 1532 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 232 (WNC!). [< D. arundinaceum (L.) Britton sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Eleocharis baldwinii (Torr.) Chapm.

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), ditches, and borrow pits.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 1462, 1512, 1523 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Eleocharis equisetoides (Elliott) Torr.

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4.
Distribution: 
Borrow pits.
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Sep. LeBlond 4988 (NCU!), Thornhill 279 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Eleocharis microcarpa Torr.

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T) and wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 18, 505, 723, 1432 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 621 (WNC!). [< E. microcarpa Torr. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schult.

Distribution: 
Depressions in pine savannas, ditches, other wet, disturbed areas.
Notes: 
Jun–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55285 (DUKE!). [< E. ovata R. Br. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Eleocharis tuberculosa (Michx.) Roem. & Schult.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, VWLPS), ditches, roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 1305, 1493 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 555 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Fimbristylis puberula var. puberula (Michx.) Vahl

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 326, 373, 518 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 194 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!). [< F. spadicea (L.) Vahl sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Fuirena breviseta (Coville) Coville

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 736, 737, 852 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 381 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53687 (DUKE!; as F. squarrosa). [< F. squarrosa Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Fuirena pumila (Torr.) Spreng.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 1533 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Isolepis carinata Hook. & Arn. ex Torr.

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S1, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare. May–Jun. Thornhill 1263 (NCSC). [= Scirpus koilolepis (Steud.) Gleason sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Kyllinga odorata Vahl

Distribution: 
Disturbed areas in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 1363 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 442 (WNC!). [= Cyperus sesquiflorus (Torr.) Mattf. & Kük. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora baldwinii A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS)
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Aug. Thornhill 629 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora caduca Elliott

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 729, 733, 868, 959, 1345 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 369 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53656, 53657, 53683 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora cephalantha var. cephalantha A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), ditches.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 9, 661, 721, 735, 783, 796, 822 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 385 (WNC!; as R. cephalantha var. pleiocephala); Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart 81 (NCU; as R. cephalantha); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 635 (WNC!). [< R. cephalantha sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Rhynchospora chalarocephala Fernald & Gale

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 15, 814, 901 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 505 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57612, 57615 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora chapmanii M.A. Curtis

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 777, 809, 1505 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 518 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57616, 57622 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora ciliaris (Michx.) C. Mohr

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 397, 506, 511, 654 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 386 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57609 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora colorata (L.) H. Pfeiff.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Sep. Thornhill 319, 328, 441, 484, 684 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 173 (WNC!). [= Dichromena colorata (L.) H. Pfeiff. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray

Distribution: 
Cypress savannas, other wetlands.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA; < R. corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray var. corniculata sensu Weakley]

Rhynchospora debilis Gale

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 2260 (NCU!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora decurrens Chapm.

Conservation status: 
State T, FSC; S1S2, G3G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Aug. Thornhill 1390 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora distans (Michx.) Vahl

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 659 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 516 (WNC!; as R. fascicularis var. distans). [< R. fascicularis (Michx.) Vahl sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Rhynchospora divergens Chapm. ex M.A. Curtis

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S2, G4.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
May–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 4586 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 612 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora fascicularis (Michx.) Vahl

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Jun–Sep. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. [< RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Rhynchospora filifolia A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 396, 635, 697, 727, 811 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora galeana Naczi, W.M. Knapp & G. Moor

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S2S3, G3G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. LeBlond 6111 (NCU); Thornhill 784 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 666 (WNC!; as R. breviseta). [= R. breviseta (Gale) Channell sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Rhynchospora globularis (Chapm.) Small

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 252 (NCSC). [< RAB; = R. globularis (Chapm.) Small var. globularis sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Rhynchospora glomerata var. glomerata (L.) Vahl

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 533 (WNC!). [< R. glomerata (L.) Vahl sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Rhynchospora gracilenta A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 626, 1096, 1103 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 473 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora inexpansa (Michx.) Vahl

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 633, 645, 652, 655, 695 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53640, 53670 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 519 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora latifolia (Baldwin) W.W. Thomas

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), ditches, borrow pits.
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Sep. Thornhill 11, 356, 451, 529 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 185 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!; as Dichromena latifolia), Wilbur 53697 (DUKE!; as Dichromena latifolia). [= Dichromena latifolia Baldwin ex Elliott sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora macrostachya Torr. ex A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS), borrow pits.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 918 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 256 (WNC!; as R. macrostachya var. macrostachya); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53684 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora microcarpa Baldwin ex A. Gray

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S2, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Aug. Thornhill 517, 731 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora microcephala (Britton) Britton ex Small

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 2387 (NCU!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora mixta Britton

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine savannas (VWLPS), ditches.
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Aug. More commonly a species of swamps and marshes, R. mixta was reported from savannas in Sandy Run by LeBlond (1999). A specimen (Thornhill 1407, NCSC) was collected in a swamp in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author, but no specimens have been seen in savannas. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora nitens (Vahl) A. Gray

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4?.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS), ditches, borrow pits.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Aug. Thornhill 17, 931 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 415 (WNC!). [= Psilocarya nitens (Vahl) Alph. Wood sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora oligantha A. Gray

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Aug. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 554 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora pallida M.A. Curti

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 14, 663 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 215 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora pinetorum Britton & Small

Conservation status: 
SR-T; S2, G5?T3?.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 515 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 473 (WNC!). [< R. globularis (Chapm.) Small sensu RAB; = R. globularis (Chapm.) Small var. pinetorum (Britton & Small) Gale sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Rhynchospora plumosa Elliott

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Aug. Thornhill 313, 357, 443, 467, 468, 726, 772, 778, 929 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 239 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart 27 (NCU!); Wilbur 57623 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora pusilla Chapm. ex M.A. Curtis

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 24, 504, 507, 566, 860 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 372 (WNC!). [= R. intermixta C. Wright sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora rariflora (Michx.) Elliott

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 516, 579, 1102, 1355 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora scirpoides (Torr.) Griseb.

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Wilbur 57613 (DUKE!), Wilbur 57619 (DUKE!). [= Psilocarya scirpoides Torr. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora thornei Kral

Conservation status: 
SC-V, FSC; S2, G3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. LeBlond 6127 (NCU!). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 2851 (DUKE!), LeBlond 5514 (NCSC!), Taggart SARU 634 (WNC!). [= FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora torreyana A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 8, 775, 779 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 317 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53638, 53646, 53647 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhynchospora wrightiana Boeck.

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 16 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Schoenoplectus pungens var. pungens (Vahl) Palla

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Mid-May–Jun; Jun–Sep. Thornhill 767 (NCSC). [< Scirpus americanus (Pers.) sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 
Rare. (Jul–)Aug–Sep. Thornhill 543, 1061 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 313 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53662 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Scirpus lineatus Michx.

Conservation status: 
State T; S2, G4.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
May–Jul. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 670 (WNC!). [= S. fontinalis R.M. Harper sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Scleria baldwinii (Torr.) Steud.

Conservation status: 
State T; S2, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Jul. Thornhill 433, 576, 1091 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Scleria ciliata var. ciliata Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Aug. Thornhill 1138, 1318, 1514 (NCSC). [< S. ciliata Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Scleria ciliata var. glabra (Chapm.) Fairey

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
May–Aug. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. [< S. ciliata Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Scleria georgiana Core

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Jun–Aug. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 315 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Scleria minor (Britton) W. Stone

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Aug. Thornhill 786, 1406, 1582 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 253 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 2058 (NCU!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Scleria muehlenbergii Steud.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 927, 939, 1107 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 667 (WNC!). [< S. reticularis Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Scleria pauciflora var. caroliniana (Willd.) Alph. Wood

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 1413 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 370 (WNC!). [< S. pauciflora Muhl. ex Willd. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Scleria species 1

Conservation status: 
SR-L, FSC; S1, G1.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
May–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 5722B (NCU!), Taggart SARU 316 (WNC!). [= Weakley]

Scleria triglomerata Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Sep. Thornhill 1321, 1322, 1323, 1360 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 329 (WNC!). [< S. triglomerata Michx. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Scleria verticillata Muhl. ex Willd.

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S2, G5.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 2373 (NCU!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea villosa L.

Distribution: 
Swampy margins of wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Apr–Jun; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 975 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 501 (WNC!). [> D. villosa L. var. villosa, D. villosa L. var. hirticaulis (Bartlett) H.E. Ahles sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Eriocaulaceae

Eriocaulon compressum Lam.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Apr–Oct. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Eriocaulon decangulare var. decangulare L.

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T) and pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 437, 466, 499, 512, 634, 660, 662, 717, 802 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55306 (DUKE!; as E. decangulare); Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 165 (WNC!). [< E. decangulare L. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Lachnocaulon anceps (Walter) Morong

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T) and pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Oct. Thornhill 338, 438, 446, 452, 464, 498, 586 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 120 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55298 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 217 (WNC!; as L. beyrichianum). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Syngonanthus flavidulus (Michx.) Ruhland

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G5.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas, flatwoods, and adjacent ditches.
Notes: 
May–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Holly Shelter: LeGrand s.n. (NCU!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Haemodoraceae

Lachnanthes caroliniana (Lam.) Dandy

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T) and pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), ditches.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–early Sep; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 370, 447, 493, 494, 495, 496 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Wyland s.n. (NCSC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53676 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 221 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Heloniadaceae

Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray

Conservation status: 
W5B; S5, G5.
Distribution: 
Ecotone between mesic pine savanna (MPS-CP) and pond pine woodland.
Notes: 
Rare. Mar–May; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1274 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Hypoxidaceae

Hypoxis curtissii Rose

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Mar–Jun; May–Jul. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. [= H. hirsuta (L.) Coville var. leptocarpa (Engelm. & A. Gray) Brackett sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Mar–Jun; May–Jul. Thornhill 105, 140, 254 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 34 (WNC!). [= H. hirsuta (L.) Coville var. hirsuta sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Hypoxis sessilis L.

Conservation status: 
SR-P; SH, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr(–later, especially in response to fire); May(–later, especially in response to fire). The specimens collected by the author lack seeds, which are the most accurate means of distinguishing this species from H. wrightii. However, the floral and vegetative features (see key above) of the specimens match the descriptions of H. sessilis, and the specimens themselves appear similar to H. sessils specimens examined at NCU (Britt 195, Leonard and Davis SWL–748, Radford 147, and Sorrie 12618). Thornhill 124, 176, 218, 295 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Hypoxis wrightii (Baker) Brackett

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Mar–Apr(–later, especially in response tofire); Apr–May(–later, especially in response to fire). Thornhill 36, 157, 244 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 255 (WNC!). [= H. micrantha Pollard sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Iridaceae

Iris tridentata Pursh

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late May–Jun; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 317, 351, 380, 384, 1300 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 175 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!), Wilbur 55316 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Iris verna var. verna L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Mar–May; May–Jun. Thornhill 76, 77, 89, 99, 100 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 45 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 60085 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Iris virginica var. virginica L.

Distribution: 
Margins of wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS) and adjacent swamps, borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr–May; Jul–Sep. Thornhill 241 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 110 (WNC!). [< I. virginica L. sensu RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Sisyrinchium albidum Raf.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Mar–Jun; May–Jun. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [< RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Mar–Jun; May–Jul. Thornhill 195, 1401 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Sisyrinchium arenicola E.P. Bicknell

Distribution: 
Pine savannas and adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Mar–Jun; Jun–Aug.). Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55244, 55281, 55323, 55324 (DUKE!). [< S. fuscatum E.P. Bicknell sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Sisyrinchium atlanticum E.P. Bicknell

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Mar–Jun; Jun–Aug. Thornhill 187, 196, 221, 372, 394 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 74 (WNC!). [= S. mucronatum Michx. var. atlanticum (E.P. Bicknell) H.E. Ahles sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Sisyrinchium capillare E.P. Bicknell

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Mar–Jun; May–Jun. Thornhill 111, 127, 138, 191, 192, 194, 208 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 178 (WNC!). [< S. albidum Raf. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Juncaceae

Juncus acuminatus Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
May–Aug. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55304 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juncus biflorus Elliott

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 455, 461, 627, 853, 1372 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 318 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 632 (WNC!; as J. marginatus). [= RAB; < J. marginatus Rostk. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Juncus bufonius L.

Distribution: 
Margins of wet pine savannas (SPS-T) and adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Nov. Thornhill 297 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 300 (WNC!; as J. bufonius var. bufonius); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55313 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juncus canadensis J. Gay ex Laharpe

Distribution: 
Depressions and borrow pits in wet pine savannas (SPS-T).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 19 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 618 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juncus coriaceus Mack.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 957 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 610 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juncus dichotomus Elliott

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 286, 339, 340, 453, 575 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 259 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53663 (DUKE!). [> J. dichotomus Elliott, J. platyphyllus (Wiegand) Fernald sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Juncus diffusissimus Buckley

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
May–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55286 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juncus effusus subsp. solutus (Fernald & Wiegand) Hämet-Ahti

Distribution: 
Disturbed areas in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 1339 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 257 (WNC!). [< J. effusus L. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Juncus elliottii Chapm.

Distribution: 
Margins of wet pine savannas (WLPS) and adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Sep. Thornhill 333, 336 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juncus marginatus Rostk.

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 1374 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53693, 57628 (DUKE!). [= RAB; < J. marginatus Rostk. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Juncus megacephalus M.A. Curtis

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Aug. Thornhill 405, 519, 574, 732 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 298 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53666, 55284 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juncus pelocarpus E. Mey.

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine savannas (VWLPS), borrow pits.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 854, 933, 1125, 1191 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57693 (DUKE!; as J. abortivus). [> J. abortivus Chapm. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Juncus polycephalos Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 247, 344, 780 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 167 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53714 (DUKE!). [= J. polycephalus Michx. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Juncus repens Michx.

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine savannas (SPS-RF), borrow pits.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 410, 713 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 229 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juncus scirpoides var. compositus R.M. Harper

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 934 (NCSC). [< J. scirpoides Lam. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Juncus scirpoides var. scirpoides Lam.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 781 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 633 (WNC!). [< J. scirpoides Lam. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Juncus trigonocarpus Steud.

Distribution: 
Borrow pits in pine savannas, ditches.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 968 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Juncus validus var. validus Coville

Distribution: 
Disturbed, wet areas in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), roadsides, ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 465, 856 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57630 (DUKE!). [< J. validus Covile sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Liliaceae

Lilium catesbaei Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Mid Jun–mid Sep; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 664, 673 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 463 (WNC!). [> L. catesbaei L. var. catesbaei, L. catesbaei var. longii Fernald sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Melanthiaceae

Amianthium muscitoxicum (Walter) A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. May–Jul; Jul–Sep. Thornhill 1400 (NCSC). [= A. muscaetoxicum (Walter) A. Gray sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Stenanthium densum (Desr.) Zomlefer & Judd

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr–early Jun; late May–Jul. Thornhill 275, 354, 487, 492 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 174 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!; as Amianthium muscitoxicum), Wilbur 55317 (DUKE!; as Zigadenus densus). [= Zigadenus densus (Desr.) Fernald sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Veratrum virginicum (L.) W.T. Aiton

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Aug; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1010 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 646 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57658 (DUKE!). [= Melanthium virginicum L. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Zigadenus glaberrimus Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Late Jun–early Sep; Aug–Nov. Thornhill 678, 714, 797, 915 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 9426 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 365 (WNC!), Wilbur 53706, 57661 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Nartheciaceae

Aletris aurea Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Mid May–Jul; Aug. Thornhill 426, 535, 536 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 309 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck] Wilbur 53674 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Aletris farinosa L.

Conservation status: 
W5B; S5, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Late Apr–early Jun; Jul–Aug. Thornhill 248, 274, 291, 324, 382, 385 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 121 (WNC!), Wilbur 55294 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Aletris lutea Small

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Apr–mid Jun; May–Jul. Thornhill 556 (NCSC). [= FNA, Weakley]

Orchidaceae

Calopogon barbatus (Walter) Ames

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr–early May. Thornhill 162, 188, 189, 193, 206 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 105 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Calopogon pallidus Chapm.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Jul. Thornhill 322, 399, 408 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 179 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr–Jul. Thornhill 421 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 187 (WNC!). [= C. pulchellus R. Br. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Cleistesiopsis divaricata (L.) Pansarin & F. Barros

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–mid Jun. Thornhill 386 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 587 (WNC!; as Cleistes divaricata). [< Cleistes divaricata (L.) Ames sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Cleistesiopsis oricamporum P.M. Br.

Conservation status: 
W7; S2, G3?.
Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
May–Jul. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000; as Cleistes bifaria (Fernald) Catling & Gregg), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. [< Cleistes divaricata (L.) Ames sensu RAB; < Cleistes bifaria (Fernald) Catling & Gregg sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Platanthera blephariglottis (Willd.) Lindl.

Conservation status: 
W1; S3?, G4G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 1521 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 9425 (DUKE!); Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 424 (WNC!). [< Habenaria blephariglottis (Willd.) Hook. var. blephariglottis sensu RAB; = P. blephariglottis (Willd.) Lindl. var. blephariglottis sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Platanthera ciliaris (L.) Lindl.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 441 (WNC!). [= Habenaria ciliaris (L.) R. Br. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Platanthera cristata (Michx.) Lindl.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 1448 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 9438 (DUKE!; as Habenaria cristata); Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 360 (WNC!). [= Habenaria cristata (Michx.) R. Br. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Platanthera integra (Nutt.) A. Gray ex L.C. Beck

Conservation status: 
SC-V; S2, G3G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 9428 (DUKE!; as Habenaria integra). [= Habenaria integra (Nutt.) Spreng. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Platanthera nivea (Nutt.) Luer

Conservation status: 
State T; S1, G5.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
May–Sep. Reported from Sandy Run by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= Habenaria nivea (Nutt.) Spreng. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker Gawl.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Mar–Jun. Thornhill 1286 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 190 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Nov. Thornhill 489, 1173, 1356 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 543 (WNC!). [= S. cernua (L.) Rich. var. cernua sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Spiranthes eatonii Ames ex P.M. Br.

Conservation status: 
State E; S2, G2G4.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Feb–May. Thornhill 483, 1303, 1377 (NCSC). [= FNA, Weakley]

Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis (Bigelow) Luer

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Aug–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 285 (WNC!). [= S. gracilis (Bigelow) Beck var. gracilis sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Spiranthes laciniata (Small) Ames

Conservation status: 
SC-V; S2, G4G5.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Aug. Thornhill 390, 477 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 177 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Spiranthes longilabris Lindl.

Conservation status: 
State E; S1, G3.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 

Late Oct–Dec. Reported within a two-mile radius of Shaken Creek Preserve by the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program (http://www.ncnhp.org) (EO status “current”, accuracy “medium”), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Spiranthes praecox (Walter) S. Watson

Distribution: 
Pine savannas (SPS-T, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Mar–Jul. Thornhill 1301 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 589 (WNC!). [< S. praecox (Walter) S. Watson sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Spiranthes vernalis Englem. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Pine savannas (WLPS) and adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Mar–Jul. Thornhill 1556 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Poaceae

Agrostis altissima (Walter) Tuck.

Conservation status: 
SR-T; S2, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Oct–Nov. Thornhill 1060, 1076, 1132, 1164, 1192 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 2595, 4655, 4672 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 550 (WNC!). [< A. perennans (Walter) Tuck. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Agrostis hyemalis (Walter) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Mar–Jul. Thornhill 226, 287, 299, 332, 406, 413 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Old Maple Hilll Road: Wilbur 55268 (DUKE!). [< A. hyemalis (Walter) Britton, Stern, & Poggenb. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Agrostis perennans (Walter) Tuck.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1021 (NCSC). [< A. perennans (Walter) Tuck. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Amphicarpum amphicarpon (Pursh) Nash

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 23, 821 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 538 (NCU!). [= A. purshii Kunth sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Andropogon dealbatus (C. Mohr ex Hack.) Weakley & LeBlond

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1113, 1118, 1196 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 647 (as A. capillipes var. 2), Taggart SARU 662 (WNC!). [< A. virginicus L. sensu RAB; < A. virginicus L. var. glaucus Hack. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Andropogon gerardii Vitman

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 690, 848, 1040, 1098 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 408 (WNC!), Wilbur 8391 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Andropogon glaucopsis Steud.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 21, 1119, 1160 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 489 (WNC!). [< A. virginicus L. sensu RAB; = A. glomeratus var. glaucopsis (Elliott) C. Mohr sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1064, 1151, 1157, 1162, 1218, 1219, 1241, 1243, 1244 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 541 (WNC!). [< A. virginicus L. sensu RAB; = A. glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb. var. glomeratus sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Andropogon hirsutior (Hack.) Weakley & LeBlond

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1065, 1154, 1165, 1200 (NCSC). [< A. virginicus L. sensu RAB; = A. hirsutior (Walter) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb. var. hirsutior (Hack.) C. Mohr sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Andropogon mohrii (Hack.) Hack. ex Vasey

Conservation status: 
State T; S2, G4?.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Sep–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 539 (WNC!). [= RAB; = A. liebmannii Hack. var. pungensis (Ashe) C.S. Campb. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Andropogon perangustatus Nash

Conservation status: 
W1; S2S3, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1051, 1246 (NCSC). [= A. gyrans Ashe var. stenophyllus (Hack.) C.S. Campb. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Andropogon tenuispatheus (Nash) Nash

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1193, 1247 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57638 (DUKE!; as A. glomeratus var. pumilus). [< A. virginicus L. sensu RAB; = A. glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb. var. pumilus (Vasey) Vasey ex L.H. Dewey sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Andropogon virginicus var. decipiens C.S. Campb.

Conservation status: 
W7; S1S2, G5T4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 20, 1112, 1194, 1195, 1217 (NCSC). [< A. virginicus L. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 808, 1216, 1245 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 3 (WNC!). [< A. virginicus L. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Anthenantia rufa (Elliott) Schult.

Conservation status: 
W1; S2, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), and adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 53, 687, 812, 857, 878, 981 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 433 (WNC!). [= Anthaenantia rufa (Elliott) Schult. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Aristida palustris (Chapm.) Vasey

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 631, 776, 788, 1059 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 2586 (NCU!). [= A. affinis (Schult.) Kunth sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Aristida simpliciflora Chapm.

Conservation status: 
State E; S1S2, G3G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Aug–Oct. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen on site by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 5277 (NCU!). [= FNA, Weakley]

Aristida stricta Michx.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Sep–Nov. Thornhill 653, 820, 1020, 1072 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 9429 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 1 (WNC!). [< A. stricta Michx. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Aristida virgata Trin.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 641, 787, 858, 912, 913, 964 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 451 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 551 (WNC!; as A. simpliciflora). [= RAB; = A. purpurascens Poir. var. virgata (Trin.) Allred sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods.
Notes: 
Apr–Jul. AI199Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve (in the relevant habitats) by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 564 (WNC!). [< RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Arundinaria tecta (Walter) Muhl.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr–Jul. Thornhill 916, 917, 1281 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 161 (WNC!). [< A. gigantea (Walter) Muhl. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Calamagrostis coarctata Eaton

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 865, 973, 1033, 1094, 1242 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 432 (WNC!; as C. cinnoides); Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 1937 (NCU!; as C. cinnoides). [= C. cinnoides (Muhl.) W.P.C. Barton sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Calamovilfa brevipilis (Torr.) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw.

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 640, 648, 963, 1063 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 9424 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Chasmanthium laxum (L.) Yates

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 647, 738, 774, 1198 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 273 (WNC!). [= Uniola laxa (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Coelorachis rugosa (Nutt.) Nash

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 813, 877 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 490 (WNC!), Wilbur 57655 (DUKE!; as Manisuris rugosa). [= Manisuris rugosa (Nutt.) Kuntze sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Coleataenia anceps subsp. anceps (Michx.) Soreng

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 962, 1108, 1474 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 435 (WNC!; as Panicum anceps Michx. var. anceps). [= Panicum anceps Michx. var. anceps sensu RAB; = Panicum anceps Michx. ssp. anceps sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Coleataenia anceps subsp. rhizomata (Hitchc. & Chase) Soreng

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 782, 1054, 1110 (NCSC). [= Panicum anceps Michx. var. rhizomatum (Hitchc. & Chase) Fernald sensu RAB; = Panicum anceps Michx. ssp. rhizomatum (Hitchc. & Chase) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Coleataenia longifolia subsp. combsii (Scribn. & C.R. Ball) Soreng

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 980, 1107, 1127, 1152 (NCSC). [= Panicum longifolium Torr. var. combsii (Scribn. & C.R. Ball) Fernald sensu RAB; = Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees ssp. combsii (Scribn. & C.R. Ball) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Coleataenia longifolia subsp. longifolia (Torr.) Soreng

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 13, 26, 936, 1126, 1159, 1221 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 540 (WNC!; as Panicum longifolium var. longifolium). [= Panicum longifolium Torr. var. longifolium sensu RAB; = Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees ssp. pubescens (Vasey) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Ctenium aromaticum (Walter) Alph. Wood

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Jun–Aug(–later in response to fire). Thornhill 318, 449, 539, 649, 877 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 9430 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Hancock]: Ahles 58375 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 242 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!), Wilbur 53694 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Danthonia sericea Nutt.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr–Jun. Thornhill 1288 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Old Maple Hill Road: Wilbur 67108 (DUKE!). [=D. sericea Nutt. var. sericea sensu RAB; < FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium acuminatum var. acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
May–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 653 (WNC!). [< Panicum lanuginosum Elliott sensu RAB; = D. acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C. A. Clark var. acuminatum sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium acuminatum var. fasciculatum (Torr.) Freckmann

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Aug. Thornhill 272 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55307 (DUKE!; as Panicum lanuginosum). [< Panicum lanuginosum Elliott sensu RAB; = D. acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C. A. Clark ssp. fasciculatum (Torr.) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium acuminatum var. lindheimeri (Nash) Gould & C.A. Clark

Distribution: 
Borrow pits within and roadsides adjacent to wet pine savannas.
Notes: 
May–Sep. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen on site by the senior author. [< Panicum lanuginosum Elliott sensu RAB; = D. acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C. A. Clark ssp. lindheimeri (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium caerulescens (Hack. ex Hitchc.) Correll

Conservation status: 
State E; S1S2, G2G3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Oct. LeBlond 4851 (NCU); Thornhill 1308 (NCSC). [< Panicum dichotomum L. sensu RAB; < D. dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp. roanokense (Ashe) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium chamaelonche subsp. chamaelonche (Trin.) Freckmann & Lelong

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr–Sep. Thornhill 1297 (NCSC). [< Panicum chamaelonche Trin. sensu RAB; < D. chamaelonche (Trin.) Freckmann & Lelong ssp. chamaelonche sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium commutatum subsp. commutatum (Schult.) Gould

Distribution: 
Margins of wet pine savannas (VWLPS) and adjacent swamps.
Notes: 
Rare. May–Oct. Thornhill 1494 (NCSC). [< Panicum commutatum Schult. sensu RAB; > D. commutatum (Schult.) Gould ssp. commutatum, D. commutatum (Schult.) Gould ssp. equilaterale (Scribn.) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium consanguineum (Kunth) Gould & C.A. Clark

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr–Sep. Thornhill 246, 285, 296, 1295 (NCSC). [< Panicum consanguineum Kunth sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Dichanthelium dichotomum var. nitidum (Lam.) LeBlond

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Oct. Thornhill 312 (NCSC). [< Panicum dichotomum L. sensu RAB; = D. dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp. nitidum (Lam.) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium dichotomum var. roanokense (Ashe) LeBlond

Conservation status: 
W1; S2, G5T4?.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Oct. Thornhill 273, 347, 960 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Sorrie 6381 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 609 (WNC!). [< Panicum dichotomum L. sensu RAB; < D. dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp. roanokense (Ashe) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
May–Oct. Reported from near Sandy Run by LeBlond (1999), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [< Panicum dichotomum L. sensu RAB; = D. dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp. dichotomum sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium ensifolium (Baldwin ex Elliott) Gould

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Oct. Thornhill 276, 288, 361, 400, 1161, 1294 (NCSC). [< Panicum ensifolium Baldwin ex Elliott sensu RAB; = D. ensifolium (Baldwin ex Elliott) Gould ssp. ensifolium sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium leucothrix (Nash) Freckmann

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Oct. Thornhill 268, 402, 928, 1293, 1309 (NCSC). [= Panicum leucothrix Nash sensu RAB; = D. acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C. A. Clark ssp. leucothrix (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium longiligulatum (Nash) Freckmann

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Sep. Thornhill 250, 401, 440, 1220, 1306, 1310, 1347 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 654 (WNC!). [= Panicum longiligulatum Nash sensu RAB; = D. acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C. A. Clark ssp. longiligulatum (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium mattamuskeetense (Ashe) Mohlenbr.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Oct. Thornhill 257, 279, 289, 1313, 1506 (NCSC). [< Panicum dichotomum L. sensu RAB; < D. dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp. mattamuskeetense (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium ovale var. addisonii (Nash) Gould & C.A. Clark

Distribution: 
Dry to damp, sandy woods and fields.
Notes: 
May–Oct. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= Panicum commonsianum Ashe sensu RAB; = D. ovale (Elliott) Gould & C. A. Clark ssp. pseudopubescens (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium ovale var. ovale (Elliott) Gould & C.A. Clark

Conservation status: 
W1; S2S3, G5T5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. May–Oct. Thornhill 1401 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 537 (WNC!). [= Panicum ovale Elliott sensu RAB; = D. ovale (Elliott) Gould & C. A. Clark ssp. ovale sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium scabriusculum (Elliott) Gould & C.A. Clark

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides, ditches.
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Oct. Thornhill 407, 618, 688, 691, 1166, 1167, 1168, 1169 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 544 (WNC!). [< Panicum scabriusculum Elliott sensu RAB; < D. scabriusculum (Elliott) Gould & C.A. Clark sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium scoparium (Lam.) Gould

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS), adjacent roadsides, ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Oct. Thornhill 571, 643, 791 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53642 (DUKE!). [= Panicum scoparium Lam. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Dichanthelium species 12 (=chrysopsidifolium)

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
May–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 609 (WNC!; as D. aciculare (Desv. ex Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark). [< Panicum consanguineum Kunth sensu RAB; < D. consanguineum (Kunth) Gould & C.A. Clark sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium species 3 (=lancearium)

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Sep. Thornhill 1298, 1315, 1325 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55275 (DUKE!; as Panicum lancearium). [= Panicum lancearium Trin. sensu RAB; < D. portoricense (Desv. ex Ham.) B.F. Hansen & Wunderlin spp. patulum (Scribn. & Merr.) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Elliott) Gould

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Oct. Thornhill 773, 1416 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 542 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 2262 (NCU!), Wilbur 55280 (DUKE!; as Panicum sphaerocarpon). [= Panicum sphaerocarpon Elliott sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Dichanthelium strigosum var. leucoblepharis (Trin.) Freckmann

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
May–Oct. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen on site by the senior author. [= Panicum ciliatum Elliott sensu RAB; = D. strigosum (Muhl. ex Elliott) Freckmann ssp. leucoblepharis (Trin.) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium strigosum var. strigosum (Muhl. ex Elliott) Freckmann

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Oct. Thornhill 1414 (NCSC). [< Panicum strigosum Muhl. ex Elliott sensu RAB; = D. strigosum (Muhl. ex Elliott) Freckmann ssp. strigosum sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium tenue (Muhl.) Freckmann & Lelong

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Oct. Thornhill 301, 1307, 1326, 1411, 1415 (NCSC). [= Panicum tenue Muhl. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Dichanthelium villosissimum var. villosissimum (Nash) Freckmann

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr–Sep. Thornhill 1324 (NCSC). [= Panicum villosissimum Nash sensu RAB; = D. ovale (Elliott) Gould & C. A. Clark subsp. villosissimum (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Dichanthelium webberianum (Nash) LeBlond

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, GNR.
Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF)
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Aug. Thornhill 961, 1314, 1316 (NCSC). [= Panicum webberianum Nash sensu RAB; < D. portoricense (Desv. ex Ham.) B.F. Hansen & Wunderlin spp. patulum (Scribn. & Merr.) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Eragrostis elliottii S. Watson

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1093, 1190 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 524 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Eragrostis refracta (Muhl. ex Elliott) Scribn.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 22, 815, 816, 862 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 416 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Gymnopogon brevifolius Trin.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1056, 1071, 1153, 1156 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin.

Distribution: 
Roadside immediately adjacent and scraped area within wet pine savanna (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Late Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1114, 1199 (NCSC). [< RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Muhlenbergia expansa (Poir.) Trin.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Late Aug–Oct. Thornhill 771, 864, 1012, 1013, 1014, 1015, 1016 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 434 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57656, 57666 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Muhlenbergia torreyana (Schult.) Hitchc.

Conservation status: 
SC-V; S2, G3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Aug–Nov. LeBlond 4859 (NCU!), Sorrie 9501 (NCU!), Thornhill 1053 (NCSC). [= FNA, Weakley]

Panicum dichotomiflorum var. puritanorum Svenson

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S1, G5T4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 935 (NCSC). [= P. dichotomiflorum Michx. subsp. puritanorum (Svenson) Freckmann & Lelong sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Panicum hemitomon Schult.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Jul. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 241 (WNC!). Though reported by Taggart (2010) as occurring in anthopogenic wetlands and swamps, specimen label data for Taggart’s voucher indicates that the specimen occurred “as a single colony within [a] wet savanna”, where growing with numerous species of savanna affinity, including Ctenium aromaticum, Panicum virgatum, Polygala ramosa, and Rhynchospora spp. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Panicum verrucosum Muhl.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1062, 1109, 1124 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 611 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Panicum virgatum L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 789, 790, 866, 869 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 248 (WNC!; as P. virgatum var. virgatum); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53711 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA; > P. virgatum L. various varieties sensu Weakley]

Paspalum floridanum Michx.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Aug–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53652, 57639 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Paspalum praecox var. curtisianum (Steud.) Vasey

Conservation status: 
W1; S2S3, G4 (as P. praecox)
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 403, 434, 450, 572, 577, 1055, 1088, 1099, 1163 (NCSC). [= RAB; < P. praecox Walter sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Paspalum praecox var. praecox Walter

Conservation status: 
W1; S2S3, G4 (as P. praecox).
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. May–Jul. Thornhill 734 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 195 (WNC!). [= RAB; < P. praecox Walter sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Paspalum setaceum var. ciliatifolium (Michx.) Vasey

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jun–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 545 (WNC!). [< P. setaceum Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Paspalum setaceum var. muhlenbergii (Nash) D.J. Banks

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 646, 1077 (NCSC). [< P. setaceum Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Paspalum setaceum var. setaceum Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 549, 1531 (NCSC). [< P. setaceum Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Saccharum baldwinii Spreng.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 1111, 1189 (NCSC). [= Erianthus strictus Baldwin sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Saccharum brevibarbe var. contortum (Elliott) R.D. Webster

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods.
Notes: 
Late Jul–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 477 (WNC!). [= Erianthus contortus Elliott sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Saccharum coarctatum (Fernald) R.D. Webster

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS), ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1019, 1249 (NCSC). [< Erianthus brevibarbis Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Saccharum giganteum (Walter) Pers.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS), ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1023, 1187, 1188, 1215 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 4 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57647, 57670 (DUKE!; as Erianthus giganteus). [= Erianthus giganteus (Walter) P. Beauv. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium (Michx.) Nash

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. (Jun–)Aug–Oct. Thornhill 769, 849, 863, 867, 914, 926, 1248 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 9431 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 536 (WNC!). [< Andropogon scoparius Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Oct. Thornhill 711, 768, 855, 1373 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 240 (WNC!). [= S. geniculata P. Beauv. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1095, 1158 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 465 (WNC!), Wilbur 57654 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Sporobolus pinetorum Weakley & P.M. Peterson

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Jun–Sep(–later in response to fire). Thornhill 651, 656, 694, 699, 724, 770, 818, 1018 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 9430 (DUKE!; as S. teretifolius); Sandy Run: Sorrie 5889 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 560 (WNC!). [>< S. teretifolius R.M. Harper sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Smilacaceae

Smilax bona-nox L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare (in pertinent habitats). Late Apr–May; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1409, 1485 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 414 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Smilax glauca Walter

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Apr–early Jun; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 294, 395, 837, 1052, 1235 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 282 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Smilax laurifolia L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Aug; Sep–Oct. (of 2nd year). Thornhill 168, 181, 262 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 159 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Smilax rotundifolia L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr–May; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1359 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 170 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Smilax smallii Morong

Distribution: 
Margins of wet pine savannas (VWLPS) and swamp forests.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Jul; Apr–Jun (of 2nd year). Thornhill 1182, 1492 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Tofieldiaceae

Pleea tenuifolia Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent (abundant in SPS-RF). Sep–Oct. Thornhill 27 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 469 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57623A (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Tofieldia glabra Nutt.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. (Late Aug–)late Sep–Oct; Oct–Nov. Thornhill 1121, 1202, 1208 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 507 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57649 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Triantha racemosa (Walter) Small

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–early Aug; late Sep–Oct. Thornhill 551, 604, 667, 682 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 348 (WNC!), Wyland s.n. (NCSC!; as Tofieldia racemosa var. racemosa); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53692 (DUKE!; as Tofieldia racemosa). [= Tofieldia racemosa (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. var. racemosa RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Trilliaceae

Trillium pusillum var. pusillum Michx.

Conservation status: 
State E, FSC; S2, G3T2.
Distribution: 
Margins of pine savannas and adjacent swamps.
Notes: 
Late Mar–May; Jun–Jul. Reported from Sandy Run by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [< T. pusillum Michx. sensu RAB; < FNA; = Weakley]

Xyridaceae

Xyris ambigua Beyr. ex Kunth

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS) and borrow pits.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Aug. Thornhill 573, 588, 628, 669, 685, 708, 719, 801 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 384 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Xyris baldwiniana Schult.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T).
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Jul. Thornhill 528 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 236 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Xyris brevifolia Michx.

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Aug. Thornhill 37, 800 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 350 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Xyris caroliniana Walter

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Jul. Thornhill 578, 587, 677 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 303 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Xyris curtissii Malme

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Aug. Thornhill 748, 793, 1507 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 649 (WNC!). [= RAB; = X. difformis Malme var. curtissii (Malme) Kral sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Xyris fimbriata Elliott

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T), borrow pits.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 31, 919 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Xyris flabelliformis Chapm.

Conservation status: 
W1; S1, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
May–Jun. Reported from Sandy Run by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Xyris floridana (Kral) E.L. Bridges & Orzell

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S1, G5T4T5.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas, flatwoods, and adjacent ditches.
Notes: 
Aug. Reported from Sandy Run by LeBlond (1999), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= X. difformis Chapm. var. floridana Kral sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Xyris iridifolia Chapm.

Conservation status: 
W7; S2, G4G5T4T5.
Distribution: 
Borrow pits and local depressions within pine savannas, ditches.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 658 (WNC!; as X. difformis Chapm.). [= RAB; = X. laxifolia Mart. var. iridifolia (Chapm.) Kral sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Xyris jupicai Rich.

Distribution: 
Borrow pits within pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Xyris scabrifolia R.M. Harper

Conservation status: 
SC-V, FSC; S2, G3.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: McMillan 1788 (NCU!). [< FNA; = Weakley]

Xyris species 1

Conservation status: 
W2; S2, G2.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 902 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 650 (WNC!). [< X. curtissii Malme sensu RAB; < X. difformis Malme var. curtissii (Malme) Kral sensu FNA; = Weakley]

BASAL ANGIOSPERMS, MAGNOLIIDS, and EUDICOTYLEDONS

Adoxaceae

Viburnum nudum L.

Distribution: 
Ditches within and adjacent to wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr–May; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 239, 1330 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 91 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Altingiaceae

Liquidambar styraciflua L.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional (frequent only in areas not recently burned). Apr–May; Aug–Sep. Thornhill 346, 432 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Old Maple Hill Road: Wilbur 55264 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 164 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Anacardiaceae

Rhus copallinum var. copallinum L.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 329, 954 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!; as R. copallina); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 412 (WNC!). [< R. copallina L. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Toxicodendron radicans var. radicans (L.) Kuntze

Distribution: 
Swampy margins of wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T) and wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Late Apr–May; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 136 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 199 (WNC!). [< Rhus radicans L. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Apiaceae

Centella erecta (L. f.) Fernald

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), margins of borrow pits, roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Aug; Jul–Sep. Thornhill 832, 879 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 450 (WNC!). [= C. asiatica (L.) Urb. sensu RAB, Weakley]

Eryngium aquaticum var. aquaticum L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 842, 1537, 1548 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 661 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Eryngium aquaticum var. ravenelii (A. Gray) Mathias & Constance

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S1, G4T2T4Q.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 5425 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 411 (WNC!), Wilbur 57680 (DUKE!; as E. aquaticum). [= RAB, Weakley]

Eryngium integrifolium Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 7, 951 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 421 (WNC!); Sandy Run[Neck]: Wilbur 57676 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Eryngium yuccifolium var. synchaetum A. Gray ex J.M. Coult. & Rose

Conservation status: 
W2; S2, G5T5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Aug. Thornhill 689, 703 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Levy s.n. (DUKE!; as E. yuccifolium), Taggart SARU 280 (WNC!), Wilbur 53709 (DUKE!; as E. yuccifolium). [= RAB, Weakley]

Eryngium yuccifolium var. yuccifolium Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Aug. Thornhill 830 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 340 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Oxypolis rigidior (L.) Raf.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Aug–Oct; Oct–Nov. Thornhill 1043 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 484 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Oxypolis ternata (Nutt.) A. Heller

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Sep–Oct; Oct–Nov. Thornhill 1070, 1128 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 494 (WNC!; as O. denticulata). [= RAB, Weakley]

Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent ditches.
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Aug; Jul–Sep. Thornhill 622 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 346 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Tiedemannia filiformis var. filiformis (Walter) Feist & S.R. Downie

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), ditches, borrow pits.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Aug; Aug–Sep. Thornhill 742, 833, 983, 1039 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 347 (WNC!; as Oxypolis filiformis). [= Oxypolis filiformis (Walter) Britton sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Apocynaceae

Asclepias lanceolata Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Aug; Aug–Sep. Thornhill 1, 378, 423 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 150 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55303 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Asclepias longifolia Michx.

Conservation status: 
W1; S2S3, G4G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Jun; Jun–Jul. Thornhill 249, 278, 355 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 137 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Asclepias pedicellata Walter

Conservation status: 
SC-V; S3, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Aug. [= RAB, Weakley]

Asclepias rubra L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods.
Notes: 
Jun–Jul; Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 277 (WNC!), Wilbur 55302, 55326 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex coriacea (Pursh) Chapm.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr–May; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 261, 309 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53668, 63782 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 104 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. May–Jun; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 43, 135, 171, 186, 237 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53701 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 50 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Ilex myrtifolia Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Jun; Oct–Nov. Thornhill 271, 284, 435, 1185 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 131 (WNC!). [= I. cassine L. var. myrtifolia (Walter) Sarg. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Ilex opaca var. opaca Aiton

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Rare. Apr–Jun; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 97 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 102 (WNC!). [< I. opaca Aiton sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Araliaceae

Aralia spinosa L.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jun–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 428 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Asteraceae

Arnica acaulis (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas, sandhills, sandy woodlands, and disturbed areas.
Notes: 
Late Mar–early Jun. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Arnoglossum ovatum var. lanceolatum (Nutt.) D.B. Ward

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S2, G4G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Late Jul–Oct. Thornhill 943 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 376 (WNC!). [= Cacalia lanceolata Nutt. sensu RAB; < A. ovatum (Walter) H. Rob. sensu FNA; Weakley]

Baccharis glomeruliflora Pers.

Conservation status: 
SC-H; S1, G4.
Distribution: 
Ecotone of pine savannas and swamp forests.
Notes: 
Rare. Oct–Nov. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 668, SARU 669 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Balduina uniflora Nutt.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Jul–Sep. Thornhill 870 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 409 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53637 (DUKE!; as Helenium pinnatifidum). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Bigelowia nudata var. nudata (Michx.) DC.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 750, 967, 1081, 1082 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 418 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57614, 57667 (DUKE!). [< Chondrophora nudata (Michx.) Britton sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Carphephorus bellidifolius (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Rare. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1542 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 491 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Carphephorus tomentosus (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T).
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1000, 1120, 1519 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 461 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57620 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Chaptalia tomentosa Vent.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Feb–May. Thornhill 87, 94 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 9 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Elliott

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Late Jun–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 495 (WNC!). [= Heterotheca mariana (L.) Shinners sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Cirsium horridulum var. horridulum Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare. Late Mar–early Jun. Thornhill 245 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 24 (WNC!). [=Carduus spinosissimus Walter sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Cirsium horridulum var. vittatum (Small) R.W. Long

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Jul. Thornhill 377 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: LeBlond 4252 (NCU!); Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 592 (WNC!). [= Carduus smallii (Britton) H.E. Ahles sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Cirsium lecontei Torr. & A. Gray

Conservation status: 
SC-V; S2, G2G3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T).
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Aug. Thornhill 1454 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 250 (WNC!). [= Carduus lecontei (Torr. & A. Gray) Pollard sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Cirsium repandum Michx.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Feb–May. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 342 (WNC!). [= Carduus repandus (Michx.) Pers. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Cirsium virginianum (L.) Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 923, 945 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 455 (WNC!), Wilbur 57657 (DUKE!). [= Carduus virginianus L. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Coreopsis falcata F.E. Boynton

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), borrow pits, adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Early May–early Jul(–later). Thornhill 219, 352, 367, 368, 392 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 145 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55321 (DUKE!). [= RAB; < C. gladiata Walter sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Coreopsis linifolia Nutt.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), borrow pits, adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Early Jul–late Oct. Thornhill 6, 38, 841, 875, 976, 978, 979, 1044 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 456 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57677 (DUKE!; as C. gladiata). [= C. angustifolia Aiton sensu RAB; < C. gladiata Walter sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Coreopsis palustris Sorrie

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S1S2, G3G4Q.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Sep–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 422 (WNC!; as C. helianthoides). [= C. helianthoides Beadle sensu RAB; < C. gladiata Walter sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Coreopsis species 1

Conservation status: 
SR-L; S1, G1?.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1171 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 4600, 4654, 5424 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 504 (WNC!). [= Weakley]

Elephantopus nudatus A. Gray

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), adjacent roadsdies.
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Jul–Sep. Thornhill 1045, 1086 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 398 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Erechtites hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC.

Distribution: 
Disturbed areas in pine savannas, dry edges of borrow pits, roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare. Late Jul–Nov. Thornhill 938, 1370 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 407 (WNC!). [< RAB; = E. hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC. var. hieraciifolius sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Frequent. Late Mar–Jun. Thornhill 112, 177, 213, 217, 766 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart 185 (NCU!), Wilbur 55318, 67091 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam.) Small

Distribution: 
Disturbed (sometimes only slightly so) areas in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T) and wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare (frequent in more disturbed areas). Sep–Nov. Thornhill 952, 1143 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart 503 (NCU!). [= E. capillifolium (Lam.) Small var. capillifolium sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Eupatorium hyssopifolium L.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Late Jul–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 639 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57618 (DUKE!). [< RAB; = E. hyssopifolium L. var. hyssopifolium sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Eupatorium leucolepis (DC.) Torr. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 828, 925, 982, 1213 (NCSC). Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 357 (WNC!). [< RAB; < E. leucolepis (DC.) Torr. & A. Gray var. leucolepis sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Eupatorium mohrii Greene

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Aug–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 403 (WNC!). [< E. recurvans Small sensu RAB; < FNA; = Weakley]

Eupatorium perfoliatum L.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Aug–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 466 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57642, 57657 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Eupatorium pilosum Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 947, 1520 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 356 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53712 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Eupatorium recurvans Small

Conservation status: 
W7; S1?, G3G4Q.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1122, 1146, 1206, 1237 (NCSC). [< RAB; < E. mohrii Greene sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Eupatorium rotundifolium L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 759 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 349 (WNC!). [= E. rotundifolium L. var. rotundifolium sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Eurybia compacta G.L. Nesom

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Late Jul–Oct. Thornhill 50, 969, 1522 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 448 (WNC!). [= Aster gracilis Nutt. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Eurybia paludosa (Aiton) G.L. Nesom

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 102, 924, 969, 1041, 1209, 1522 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 347 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57664 (DUKE!; as Aster paludosus). [= Aster paludosus Aiton sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Euthamia caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Britton

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Dec. Thornhill 1123, 1129, 1144 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 480 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57634 (DUKE!; as E. minor). [> Solidago microcephala (Nutt.) Bush, >< Solidago tenuifolia Pursh sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Helenium autumnale L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1029, 1087, 1550 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 460 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57631 (as H. pinnatifidum), 57674 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Helenium pinnatifidum (Schwein. ex Nutt.) Rydb.

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S2, G4.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas and adjacent ditches.
Notes: 
Apr–May. Reported from Sandy Run by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Helianthus angustifolius L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. (Jul–)Sep–Oct(–frost). Thornhill 51, 1140, 1141 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 405 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57668 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Helianthus heterophyllus Nutt.

Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 989, 1090 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 459 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Hieracium gronovii L.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Nov. Thornhill 1549 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 397 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Ionactis linariifolia (L.) Greene

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Aug–Nov. Thornhill 1186 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 492 (WNC!). [= Aster linariifolius L. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Liatris pilosa (Aiton) Willd.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. (Aug–)Sep–Oct(–Nov). Thornhill 52, 1176, 1545 (NCSC). [< L. graminifolia Willd. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Liatris spicata var. resinosa (Nutt.) Gaiser

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. (Jul–)Aug–Oct(–Nov). Thornhill 829, 874, 956 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 410 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Marshallia graminifolia (Walter) Small

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Jul–mid Oct. Thornhill 5, 701, 741, 807 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 362 (WNC!). [= RAB; < M. graminifolia (Walter) Small sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent swamps.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 824, 834 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 312 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Packera paupercula (Michx.) Á. Löve & D. Löve

Conservation status: 
SR-T; S1, G2G3 (as P. crawfordii (Britton) A.M. Mahoney & R.R. Kowal).
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Apr–May. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 6409 (NCU!; as P. crawfordii), Taggart SARU 10 (WNC!; as P. crawfordii/P. paupercula), and Weakley 7216 (NCU!; as P. crawfordii). Whether the entity treated as P. crawfordii deserves recognition as distinct (either varietally or specifically) from P. paupercula s.l. is still unclear. [= Senecio pauperculus Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA; > P. crawfordii (Britton) A.M. Mahoney & R.R. Kowal, P. paupercula (Michx.) Á. Löve & D. Löve var. paupercula sensu Weakley]

Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia (Fernald) Semple & F.D. Bowers

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 761, 922, 985, 1145 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 363 (WNC!). [> Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. nervosa (Small) Shinners ex Ahles, Heterotheca correllii (Fernald) H.E. Ahles sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Pluchea baccharis (Mill.) Pruski

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Jun–Jul. Reported from Sandy Run [O’Berry Tract] by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= P. rosea R.K. Godfrey sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Pluchea foetida (L.) DC.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), borrow pits.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 672, 686, 955 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 354 (WNC!), Wilbur 53659 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Prenanthes autumnalis Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1174, 1232 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 549 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & Burtt

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), adjacent roadsides and disturbed areas.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1530 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 566 (WNC!). [= Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Pterocaulon pycnostachyum (Michx.) Elliott

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Jun. Thornhill 387, 1296 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!), Taggart SARU 278 (WNC!), Wilbur 53637, 55274 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walter) DC.

Distribution: 
Roadside margins of wet pine savannas (VWLPS) and roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Mar–Jun. Thornhill 481, 657 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 63 (WNC!). [> P. carolinianus (Walter) DC. var. carolinianus sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Sericocarpus linifolius (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Jul. Thornhill 1003 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 264 (WNC!; as S. tortifolius). [= Aster solidagineus Michx. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Silphium compositum var. compositum Michx.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
May–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 470 (WNC!). [< S. compositum Michx. var. compositum sensu RAB; < S. compositum Michx. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Solidago fistulosa Mill.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Aug–Nov. Reported from Sandy Run [O’Berry Tract] by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Solidago gracillima Torr. & A. Gray

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4?.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 942, 1078, 1130, 1236 (NCSC). [= RAB; = S. stricta Aiton ssp. gracillima (Torr. & A. Gray) Semple sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Solidago odora Aiton

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 476 (WNC!). [= RAB; = S. odora Aiton ssp. odora sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Solidago pinetorum Small

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 496 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Solidago puberula var. pulverulenta (Nutt.) Chapm.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1038 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 354 (WNC!). [= RAB; = S. puberula Nutt. var. pulverulenta (Nutt.) Chapm. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Solidago pulchra Small

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 39, 40, 909, 1036, 1495 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 401 (WNC!), Wilbur 57672 (DUKE!). [< S. stricta Aiton sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Solidago stricta Aiton

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Late Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1136 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 512 (WNC!). [< RAB; = S. stricta Aiton spp. stricta sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G.L. Nesom

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Aug–Oct. Thornhill 46, 1131, 1170, 1184, 1210, 1211, 1212 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 391 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57673 (DUKE!; as Aster dumosus). [= Aster dumosus L. sensu RAB; = FNA; > S. dumosum (L.) G.L. Nesom various varieties sensu Weakley]

Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve

Distribution: 
In a wide variety of dry to moist habitats.
Notes: 
Sep–Nov. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 2590 (NCU!; as S. lateriflorum var. lateriflorum). [< Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britton sensu RAB; = FNA; < S. lateriflorum (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve various varieties sensu Weakley]

Symphyotrichum novi-belgii var. elodes (Torr. & A. Gray) G.L. Nesom

Distribution: 
Pine savannas and marshes.
Notes: 
Late Sep–Nov. Reported from Sandy Run [Haw’s Run] by LeBlond (1999), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [< Aster novi-belgii L. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pilosum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom

Distribution: 
Woodland borders, old fields, disturbed areas.
Notes: 
Sep–Nov. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57641, 57643 (DUKE!; as Aster pilosus Willd.). [< Aster pilosus Willd. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Symphyotrichum walteri (Alexander) G.L. Nesom

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Oct–Dec. Thornhill 971 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 552 (WNC!). [= Aster squarrosus Walter sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Trilisa odoratissima (J.F. Gmel.) Cass.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Frequent. Late Jul–Oct; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1518 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 497 (WNC!; as Carphephorus odoratissimus). [< T. odoratissima (J.F. Gmel.) Cass. sensu RAB; = Carphephorus odoratissimus (J. F. Gmel.) H. J.-C. Hebert var. odoratissimus sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Trilisa paniculata (J.F. Gmel.) Cass.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Aug–Oct; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1540 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 530 (WNC!; as Carphephorus paniculatus). [= RAB; = Carphephorus paniculatus (J.F. Gmel.) H.J.-C. Hebert sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Vernonia angustifolia Michx.

Distribution: 
Sandhills.
Notes: 
Late Jun–early Sep; Sep–Oct. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [> V. angustifolia Michx. var. angustifolia, V. angustifolia Michx. var. scabberima (Nutt.) S.B. Jones & W.Z. Faust sensu RAB; = FNA; > V. angustifolia Michx. various varieties sensu Weakley]

Vernonia noveboracensis (L.) Michx.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep; Aug–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 355 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Bignoniaceae

Bignonia capreolata L.

Distribution: 
Margins of wet pine savannas (WLPS) and adjacent swamps.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr–May; Jul–Aug. Thornhill 1148 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 323 (WNC!). [= Anisostichus capreolata (L.) Bureau sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau

Distribution: 
Margins of wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T) and adjacent swamps.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Jul; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1482 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 198 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Campanulaceae

Lobelia canbyi A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Nov. Thornhill 34, 49, 740, 804, 840, 873 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 446 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Lobelia glandulosa Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Oct. Thornhill 35, 921 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 478 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Lobelia nuttallii Schult.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Nov. Thornhill 3, 337, 427, 479, 488, 526 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 152 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53644, 55299 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera sempervirens L.

Distribution: 
Dry forests and woodlands.
Notes: 
Mar–Jul(–Nov); Jul–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53654 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Cistaceae

Lechea minor L.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Aug; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1551 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Lechea pulchella var. ramosissima (Hodgdon) Sorrie & Weakley

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Aug; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 623, 751 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 364 (WNC!). [< L. leggettii Britton & Hollick sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Clethraceae

Clethra alnifolia L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Jul; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 585, 613, 670, 715 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 258 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53648, 53702 (DUKE!). [= C. alnifolia L. var. alnifolia sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Convolvulaceae

Cuscuta gronovii Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.

Distribution: 
Margins of wet pine savannas (VWLPS) and adjacent swamps.
Notes: 
Rare. Grows on a wide variety of hosts, both herbaceous and woody (Weakley 2012). Aug–Oct. Thornhill 1042, 1085 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Usually found on low-growing herbaceous hosts (Radford et al. 1968). May–Nov. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 637 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Cornaceae

Cornus stricta Lam.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Rare. Apr–May; Jul–Aug. Thornhill 1491 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53653, 53655, 67087 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 211 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Cyrillaceae

Cyrilla racemiflora L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Jul; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 430, 448, 540, 614 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53681 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 229 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Diapensiaceae

Pyxidanthera barbulata Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Frequent. Mar–Apr; May–Jun. Thornhill 81, 83 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 19 (WNC!). [= P. barbulata Michx. var. barbulata sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Droseraceae

Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis

Conservation status: 
SC-V, FSC; S3, G3.
Distribution: 
Depressions in wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Jun; Jun–Jul. Thornhill 314, 381, 383 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Bell 17110 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 114 (WNC!), Wilbur 55289 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Drosera brevifolia Pursh

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Apr–May. Thornhill 104, 159 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 82 (WNC!). [=D. leucantha Shinners sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Drosera capillaris Poir.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Aug. Thornhill 292, 371, 411 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 172 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Drosera intermedia Hayne

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS), borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 29, 161, 666 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 144 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55301 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Ebenaceae

Diospyros virginiana L.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Jun; Sep–Dec. Thornhill 283, 709 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 213 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Ericaceae

Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Mar–Apr; Jun–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Holly Shelter: Fox 158 (NCSC!); Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 15 (WNC!). [= Cassandra calyculata (L.) D. Don sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Eubotrys racemosa (L.) Nutt.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Mar–early Jun; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1291, 1471, 1511, 1546 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55259 (DUKE!; as Leucothoe racemosa); Sandy Run [O’Berry]:Taggart SARU 93 (WNC!). [= Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A. Gray sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Gaylussacia dumosa (Andrews) Torr. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Mar–Jun; Jun–Oct. Thornhill 165, 197, 210, 214, 228, 233, 258, 592, 806 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 113 (WNC!). [< RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Gaylussacia frondosa (L.) Torr. & A. Gray ex Torr.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Late Mar–May; Jun–Aug. Thornhill 120, 146, 204, 212, 215, 229, 234, 290 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53650, 55288, 55291, 63768, 63781, 67097 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 106 (WNC!). [= G. frondosa var. frondosa sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Kalmia carolina Small

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr–May(–Sep); Sep–Oct. Thornhill 164, 182 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 68 (WNC!), Weakley 7218 (NCU!). [= K. angustifolia L. var. caroliniana (Small) Fernald sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Leucothoe axillaris (Lam.) D. Don

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Late Mar–May; Sep–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 669 (WNC!). [= L. axillaris (Lam.) D. Don var. axillaris sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Lyonia ligustrina (L.) DC.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Late Apr–Jul; Sep–Oct. If one chooses to recognize varieties, the material collected by the author would generally be referable to var. foliosiflora, the more common variety on the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Thornhill 417, 591, 911, 1526 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53649, 53704, 55305, 55320 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 92 (WNC!; as var. foliosiflora), Taggart SARU 226 (WNC!; as var. ligustrina). [= RAB; > L. ligustrina var. foliosiflora (Michx.) Fernald, L. ligustrina var. ligustrina sensu FNA, Weakley]

Lyonia lucida (Lam.) K. Koch

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr–early Jun; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 116, 133, 167, 180 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Holly Shelter: Fox 160 (NCSC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53667, 63770, 63783, 63784, 63785, 67088 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 71 (WNC!), Weakley 7221 (NCU!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Lyonia mariana (L.) D. Don

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr–May; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 118, 178, 236 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 96 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55308, 63766, 67096 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhododendron atlanticum (Ashe) Rehder

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr–May(–later). Thornhill 113, 179 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 62 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!), Wilbur 63767, 67098 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Rhododendron viscosum (L.) Torr.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late May–Jul; Jul–Oct. Thornhill 225, 266, 308 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 4972 (NCU; as R. viscosum var. serrulatum); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 596 (WNC!). [> R. viscosum (L.) Torr. var. serrulatum (Small) Ahles, R. viscosum (L.) Torr. var. viscosum sensu RAB, Weakley; = FNA]

Vaccinium arboreum Marshall

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas.
Notes: 
Late Apr–Jun; Sep–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 219 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Vaccinium crassifolium Andrews

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Apr–May; Jun–Jul. Thornhill 117, 153, 160, 185 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 76 (WNC!). [= RAB; < FNA; = Weakley]

Vaccinium formosum Andrews

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Feb–May; Jun–Aug. Thornhill 147, 150, 166, 173, 183, 264, 303, 305 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 23 (WNC!). [< V. corymbosum L. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Vaccinium fuscatum Aiton

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Late Feb–May; Jun–Aug. Thornhill 78, 79, 82, 92, 101, 267, 277, 302, 763 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 216 (WNC!). [= V. atrococcum (Gray) A. Heller sensu RAB; < V. corymbosum L. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Vaccinium stamineum L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Apr–Jun; Aug–Oct. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. [> V. stamineum L. var. stamineum sensu RAB; = FNA; > V. stamineum L. various varieties sensu Weakley]

Vaccinium tenellum Aiton

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Abundant. Late Mar–early May; Jun–Jul. Thornhill 145, 184, 755, 1222, 1423, 1424 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Holly Shelter: Fox 161 (NCSC!); Sandy Run [Hancock]: Ahles 28232 (NCU!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 63769, 63775 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 73 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Zenobia pulverulenta (W. Bartram ex Willd.) Pollard

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr–Jun; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 231, 259, 307, 508 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 181 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Euphorbiaceae

Cnidoscolus stimulosus (Michx.) Engelm. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Mar–Aug; May–Sep. Thornhill 1275 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 220 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Euphorbia ipecacuanhae L.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Feb–May. Thornhill 1418 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55277 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Tragia urens L.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT).
Notes: 
Rare. May–Oct. Thornhill 1419 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Ahles 28231A (NCU!; one duplicate specimen labeled as T. linearifolia Elliott). [= RAB, Weakley]

Fabaceae

Amorpha georgiana Wilbur

Conservation status: 
State E, FSC; S2, G3.
Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Rare. Apr–Jun; Jul–Oct. Thornhill 1073, 1239 (NCSC); Thornhill 1177 (NCU). [< RAB; = Weakley]

Amorpha herbacea var. herbacea Walter

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Rare. May–Jul; Jul–Oct. Thornhill 1541 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55279 (DUKE!). [< A. herbacea Walter sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Apios americana Medik.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Aug; Jul–Sep. Thornhill 1179 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Baptisia cinerea (Raf.) Fernald & B.G. Schub.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Late Apr–Jun; Jun–Jul. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 129 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Baptisia tinctoria (L.) Vent.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas and wet pine flatwoods.
Notes: 
Apr–Aug; Jul–Nov. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 176 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Aug; Jul–Oct. Thornhill 972 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 423 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Chamaecrista fasciculata var. fasciculata (Michx.) Greene

Distribution: 
Pine savannas, wet pine flatwoods.
Notes: 
Jun–Sep; Jul–Nov. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 406 (WNC!). [< Cassia fasciculata Michx. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Chamaecrista nictitans var. nictitans (L.) Moench

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Oct; Jul–Nov. Thornhill 1172 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 643 (WNC!). [< Cassia nictitans L. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Crotalaria purshii DC.

Distribution: 
Mesic to dry pinelands, sandy openings, roadsides.
Notes: 
Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991) (and seen there by the senior author), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve. [= RAB, Weakley]

Desmodium ciliare (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC.

Distribution: 
Fields, woodland borders, disturbed areas.
Notes: 
Jun–Sep; Aug–Oct. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, Weakley]

Desmodium lineatum (Michx.) DC.

Distribution: 
Sandhills and other dry forests and woodlands.
Notes: 
Jun–Sep; Aug–Oct. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, Weakley]

Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas and flatwoods, fields, woodland borders, disturbed areas.
Notes: 
Jun–Sep; Aug–Oct. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB; > D. paniculatum var. epepetiolatum B.G. Schub, D. paniculatum var. paniculatum sensu Weakley]

Desmodium tenuifolium Torr. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Aug; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 827, 1046, 1084 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Ahles 32702 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 447 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Galactia regularis (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Jul–Sep; Aug–Oct. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen on site by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 368 (WNC!; reported for roadsides and disturbed areas). [> G. macreei M.A. Curtis, G. volubilis (L.) Britton sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Indigofera caroliniana Mill.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jun–Aug; Jul–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 389 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Lespedeza angustifolia (Pursh) Elliott

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Rare. Aug–Oct; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1553 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Lespedeza capitata Michx.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine savannas (WLPS), roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Aug–Oct; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1031, 1075 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 467 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57632 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Lespedeza hirta var. curtissii (Clewell) Isely

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT).
Notes: 
Rare. Aug–Oct; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1539 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 475 (WNC!). [< L. hirta (L.) Hornem. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Strophostyles umbellata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Britton

Distribution: 
Dry, sandy woodlands.
Notes: 
Jun–Sep; Aug–Oct. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, Weakley]

Stylosanthes biflora (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Aug; Jul–Oct. Thornhill 1473 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Tephrosia florida (F. Dietr.) C.E. Wood

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
May–Jul; Jun–Sep. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen on site by the senior author. [= RAB, Weakley]

Tephrosia hispidula (Michx.) Pers.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. May–Aug; Jul–Oct. Thornhill 416, 553, 602, 702 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 321 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Tephrosia spicata (Walter) Torr. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Woodlands and roadsides.
Notes: 
Jun–Aug; Jul–Oct. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, Weakley]

Zornia bracteata J.F. Gmel.

Distribution: 
Flatwoods, sandhills, sandy roadsides.
Notes: 
Jun–Aug; Jul–Oct. Reported from Sandy Run [Neck] by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, Weakley]

Fagaceae

Quercus coccinea Münchh.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr; Sep–Nov (of second year). Thornhill 1543 (NCSC). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Quercus falcata Michx.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr; Sep–Nov (of second year). Thornhill 1329 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 297, (WNC!), Wilbur 55278 (DUKE!). [= Q. falcata var. falcata sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Quercus incana W. Bartram

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr; Sep–Nov (of second year). Thornhill 1327 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 295 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Quercus laurifolia Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Mar–Apr; Sep–Nov (of second year). Thornhill 429, 1022 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 206 (WNC!). [< RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Quercus margarettae (Ashe) Small

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1328 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 296 (WNC!). [= Q. margaretta Ahles ex Small sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Quercus marilandica var. marilandica Münchh.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr; Sep–Nov (of second year). Thornhill 1317 (NCSC). [< Q. marilandica Münchh. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Quercus nigra L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr; Sep–Nov (of second year). Thornhill 203, 207, 282, 362 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55257 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 212 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Quercus stellata Wangenh.

Distribution: 
Upland forests and woodlands.
Notes: 
Apr; Sep–Nov (of same year). Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 55283 (DUKE!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Quercus velutina Lam.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods.
Notes: 
Apr; Sep–Oct (of second year). Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 584 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Gelsemiaceae

Gelsemium sempervirens J. St.-Hil.

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP), wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Occasional. Mar–early May; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 84 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 11 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Gentianaceae

Bartonia verna Raf. ex Barton

Conservation status: 
W1; S2, G5?.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T).
Notes: 
Infrequent. (Nov–)Feb–Apr(–Jun); Apr–Jun. Thornhill 1250 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 572 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Bartonia virginica (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-PF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Oct; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 749, 907 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 493 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Gentiana autumnalis L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Sep–mid Jan. Thornhill 47, 1234 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 510 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Gentiana catesbaei Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Late Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1204, 1230, 1233 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 548 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Gentiana saponaria L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Sep–Nov. Thornhill 1183, 1231 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Sabatia angularis (L.) Pursh

Distribution: 
Forests, woodlands, marshes, fields.
Notes: 
Jul–Aug; Sep–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53669, 53672 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Sabatia brachiata Elliott

Distribution: 
Pine savannas and flatwoods.
Notes: 
Late May–Jul; Aug–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Ahles 28234 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 260 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Sabatia campanulata (L.) Torr.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Aug; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 550, 560, 609, 619 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 314 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Sabatia difformis (L.) Druce

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Sep; Sep–Dec. Thornhill 420, 485, 521, 525, 555, 582, 583, 584, 706 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 247 (WNC!), Wilbur 53689 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Sabatia gentianoides Elliott

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Aug; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1450 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 375 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Haloragaceae

Proserpinaca pectinata Lam.

Distribution: 
Depressions in pine savannas (WLPS), borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 358, 509, 621 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 271 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Hamamelidaceae

Fothergilla gardenii L.

Distribution: 
Margins of wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T) and pocosins.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Mar–May; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 1273 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 51 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Hypericaceae

Hypericum brachyphyllum (Spach) Steud.

Conservation status: 
SC-V; S1S2, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jul–Sep. LeBlond 4989, 5736A (NCSC!); Thornhill 415, 478, 527, 606, 615, 716 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 5771 (NCSC!), Taggart SARU 247 (WNC!). [= Weakley]

Hypericum canadense L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 707, 720, 795, 803, 904, 940 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Hypericum cistifolium Lam.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Aug. Thornhill 459, 607, 683, 718, 799, 805, 843 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Hypericum crux-andreae (L.) Crantz

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 700, 746 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 308 (WNC!). [=H. stans (Michx. ex Willd.) W.P. Adams & N. Robson sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Hypericum densiflorum var. densiflorum Pursh

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 910, 953, 1205 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 325 (WNC!; as H. densiflorum). [< H. densiflorum Pursh sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Hypericum denticulatum Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 762, 9665 (NCSC). [= H. denticulatum var. denticulatum sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Hypericum galioides Lam.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Aug. Thornhill 436, 563, 632, 747, 831, 944 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 628 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 2252 (NCU!), Sorrie 5884 (NCU!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Hypericum gentianoides (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 513, 599, 636 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 246 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Hypericum gymnanthum Engelm. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 1278, 1453 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 292 (WNC!; as H. mutilum var. mutilum). [= RAB, Weakley]

Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. May–Aug. Thornhill 460, 846, 1147 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 103 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Hypericum lloydii (Svenson) W.P. Adams

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jun–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 378 (WNC!; determination by the senior author of this specimen is tentative; the voucher may represent merely a branch of H. galioides). [= RAB, Weakley]

Hypericum mutilum var. mutilum L.

Distribution: 
Roadsides adjacent to and scrapes within pine savannas (SPS-RF, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 1340, 1461, 1464, 1487 (NCSC). [< H. mutilum L. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Hypericum setosum L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare. May–Sep. Thornhill 1479 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 420 (WNC!). [= RAB; Weakley]

Hypericum tenuifolium Pursh

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 1312, 1319 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 261 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53686 (DUKE!). [= H. reductum (Svenson) W.P. Adams sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Hypericum virginicum L.

Distribution: 
Boggy depressions within or near flatwoods or savannas.
Notes: 
Jul–Sep. No specimens have been seen on site by the senior author; however, one specimen (Thornhill 1479, NCSC) was collected in a boggy depression adjacent to a flatwoods just north (< 1 mile) of Shaken Creek Preserve. The presence of this species may be expected in boggy areas on site. [= RAB; Weakley]

Juglandaceae

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt.

Distribution: 
Mesic pine savannas.
Notes: 
Apr–May; Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 223 (WNC!; as C. alba). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Lamiaceae

Hyptis alata Shinners

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Late Jun–Sep. Thornhill 705, 826, 946 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 404 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57669 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Lycopus amplectens Raf.

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Nov. Thornhill 1089 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 4848, 5069 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 468 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Lycopus rubellus Moench

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Nov. Thornhill 1150 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 498 (WNC; see note preceding genus key). [= L. rubellus Moench var. rubellus sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Physostegia purpurea (Walter) S.F. Blake

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Late May–early Aug; Jun–Sep. Thornhill 419, 422, 425, 564 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 238 (WNC!; as P. virginiana ssp. praemorsa); Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!); Wilbur 53695 (DUKE!). [< Dracocephalum purpureum (Walter) E.M. McClint. ex Gleason sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Pycnanthemum flexuosum (Walter) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Sep; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 603, 679, 704, 948, 1547 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 191 (WNC!), Wilbur 53641, 53699 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Pycnanthemum setosum Nutt.

Conservation status: 
SR-T; S2, G4.
Distribution: 
Dry pinelands.
Notes: 

Mid Jun–Aug; Aug–Oct. The specimen for this report (Thornhill 1547, NCSC), which was collected by the author at the edge of a dirt road and powerline savanna in Shaken Creek Preserve, has calyx lobes somewhat shorter and leaves somewhat narrower than is typical for P. setosum. However, based on comparisons to specimens at NCSC and NCU and following the advice of better botanists (in particular, Derrick Poindexter (NCU)), the specimen seems at least to align most closely with P. setosum. More study is needed to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. P. setosum is also reported within a 2-mile radius of Shaken Creek Preserve by the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program (http://www.ncnhp.org) (EO status “current”, accuracy “medium”), though no vouchers for this report have been seen by the senior author. [= RAB, Weakley]

Scutellaria integrifolia L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Jul; Jul–Aug. Thornhill 316, 363 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 117 (WNC!), Wilbur 55319 (DUKE!). [> S. integrifolia L. var. integrifolia, S. integrifolia L. var. hispida Benth. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Lauraceae

Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Jun; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 497, 542 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 154 (WNC!). [< P. borbonia (L.) Spreng. sensu RAB; = FNA, Weakley]

Sassafras albidum J. Presl

Distribution: 
Pine/scrub oak sandhills (PSOS-MT), mesic pine savannas (MPS-CP).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Mar–Apr; Jun–Jul. Thornhill 1534 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 222 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley]

Lentibulariaceae

Pinguicula caerulea Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr–May. Thornhill 103, 126, 141 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 55 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 63790, 67099 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Pinguicula pumila Michx.

Conservation status: 
State E; S2, G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Apr–May. Thornhill 108, 125, 143, 163 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 574 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Utricularia juncea Vahl

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T), borrow pits.
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Sep. Thornhill 32 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 645 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Utricularia subulata L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Mar–Jul(–later). Thornhill 107, 158, 216 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 143 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 63791 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Linaceae

Linum floridanum var. chrysocarpum C.M. Rogers

Conservation status: 
State T; S1S2, G5?T3?.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jun–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 2536 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 565 (WNC!). [< L. virginianum L. var. floridanum Planch. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Linum floridanum var. floridanum (Planch.) Trel.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 374, 569, 605, 753, 823 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 525 (WNC!). [< L. virginianum L. var. floridanum Planch. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Linum intercursum E.P. Bicknell

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 486 (NCSC). [< L. virginianum L. var. floridanum Planch. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Linum medium var. texanum (Planch.) Fernald

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 568 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 8390 (DUKE!; as L. medium); Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 47 (WNC!; as L. medium), Wilbur 55267 (DUKE!; as L. medium). [< L. virginianum L. var. medium Planch. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Linum striatum Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Oct. Thornhill 970 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Linderniaceae

Lindernia dubia var. anagallidea (Michx.) Cooperr.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 1510 (NCSC). [= L. anagallidea (Michx.) Pennell sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Loganiaceae

Mitreola petiolata (J.F. Gmel.) Torr. & A. Gray

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. Jul–Sep; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 844 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 374 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53688 (DUKE!). [= Cynoctonum mitreola (L.) Britton sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Mitreola sessilifolia (J.F. Gmel.) G. Don

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), ditches.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Late Jun–Aug; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 558, 681 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 334 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53700 (DUKE!). [= Cynoctonum sessilifolium J.F. Gmel. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Lythraceae

Ammannia coccinea Rottb.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods, ditches, other wet places.
Notes: 
Jul–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 2831 (NCU!), Wilbur 57640 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Magnoliaceae

Liriodendron tulipifera L.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas, wet pine flatwoods.
Notes: 
Apr–Jun; Sep–Oct. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 162 (WNC!; as L. tulipifera var. 1), Weakley 7217 (NCU!; as L. tulipifera var. variabilis). [= RAB, FNA; > L. tulipifera var. 1, L. tulipifera var. tulipifera sensu Weakley]

Magnolia virginiana L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr–Jul; Jul–Oct. Thornhill 235, 263 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [O’Berry]: Taggart SARU 160 (WNC!; as M. virginiana var. australis), Taggart SARU 553 (WNC!; as M. virginiana var. virginiana). [= RAB, FNA; > M. virginiana L. var. australis Sarg., M. virginiana L. var. virginiana sensu Weakley]

Melastomataceae

Rhexia alifanus Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Sep. Thornhill 524, 557, 580 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 263 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53691 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Rhexia lutea Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr–Jul(–later in response to fire). Thornhill 311, 320, 353, 393 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 188 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Levy s.n. (DUKE!), Wilbur 53679, 55314 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Rhexia mariana var. exalbida Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 501, 520, 567, 593, 668 (NCSC). [= RAB, Weakley]

Rhexia mariana var. mariana L.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS).
Notes: 
Rare. May–Oct. Thornhill 617 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 224 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Rhexia nashii Small

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. May–Oct. Thornhill 595, 739, 794, 906 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 429 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53643 (DUKE!). [= R. mariana var. purpurea Michx. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Rhexia petiolata Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 665, 675, 792 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 414 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53675 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Myricaceae

Morella caroliniensis (Mill.) Small

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 121, 134, 149, 154, 169 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Highway 50: Wilbur 8388 (DUKE!; as Myrica heterophylla); Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 180 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 67095 (DUKE!). [=Myrica heterophylla Raf. sensu RAB, FNA; = Weakley]

Morella cerifera (L.) Small

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 131, 132, 148, 170 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 16 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53682 (DUKE!). [= Myrica cerifera L. var. cerifera sensu RAB; < Myrica cerifera L. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Morella pumila (Michx.) Small

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Apr; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 119, 152, 172 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 60088 (DUKE!; as Myrica pusilla), Wilbur 63780 (DUKE!; as M. pumila var. cerifera); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 302 (WNC!). [= Myrica cerifera L. var. pumila Michx. sensu RAB; < Myrica cerifera L. sensu FNA; = Weakley]

Nyssaceae

Nyssa biflora Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr–Jun; Aug–Oct. Thornhill 230, 256 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 235 (WNC!). [= N. sylvatica Marshall var. biflora (Walter) Sarg. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Nyssa sylvatica Marshall

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Apr–Jun; Aug–Oct. Reported from Shaken Creek Preserve by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen on site by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 582 (WNC!). [= N. sylvatica Marshall var. sylvatica sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Oleaceae

Fraxinus caroliniana Mill.

Distribution: 
Swampy margins of wet pine savannas (VWLPS), borrow pits, ditches.
Notes: 
Infrequent. May; Jul–Oct. Thornhill 242 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 155 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Onagraceae

Ludwigia hirtella Raf.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 1446 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 306 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Ludwigia linearis Walter

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF), borrow pits.
Notes: 
Infrequent. Jun–Sep. Two varieties are recognized by Weakley (2012): var. linearis, with the cells of the seed surface oriented parallel to the long axis of the seed, and var. puberula Engelm. & A. Gray, with the cells of the seed surface oriented irregularly or elongated perpendicularly to the long axis of the seed. This character, best seen at ≥ 20× magnification, is the only non-overlapping morphological character that distinguishes the two varieties. If varieties are recognized, the specimens collected by the senior author would be referable to var. linearis. A specimen collected from Sandy Run [Hancock] (Taggart SARU 379, WNC) has been reported as var. puberula (Taggart 2010). Thornhill 30, 941, 1117, 1203 (NCSC). [= RAB; > L. linearis Walter var. linearis, L. linearis Walter var. puberula Engelm. & A. Gray sensu Weakley]

Ludwigia maritima R.M. Harper

Conservation status: 
W7; S2S3, G5.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Rare. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 1207 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 652 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Ludwigia microcarpa Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (VWLPS), adjacent roadsides.
Notes: 
Occasional. Jul–Oct. Thornhill 559, 845, 1440, 1524 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53660, 53690, 57653, 57665 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [RMK]: Taggart SARU 417 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Ludwigia virgata Michx.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Jun–Sep. Thornhill 546, 554, 608, 624, 674 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 53677 (DUKE!); Sandy Run [Patterson]: Taggart SARU 304 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Oenothera fruticosa var. unguiculata Fernald

Conservation status: 
W7; S2S3, G5T2T3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Apr–Aug. LeBlond 4976 (NCU!); Thornhill 364, 376, 424, 480, 565, 1050 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: LeBlond 4575, 4978 (NCU!); Taggart SARU 95 (WNC!). [< O. fruticosa L. sensu RAB; = Weakley]

Orobanchaceae

Agalinis aphylla (Nutt.) Raf.

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G3G4.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Sep–Oct; Oct–Nov. Thornhill 44, 1008, 1047 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Holly Shelter: Sorrie 8623 (NCU!); Sandy Run: Leonard 7601 (NCU!), Taggart SARU 458 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Agalinis fasciculata (Elliott) Raf.

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF).
Notes: 
Rare. Aug–Oct; Oct. Thornhill 1544 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 521 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: LeBlond 2587 (NCU!), Wilbur 57627 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Agalinis linifolia (Nutt.) Britton

Conservation status: 
W1; S3, G4?.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Occasional. Aug–Sep; Sep–Oct. Thornhill 965, 977, 1037 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 454 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Agalinis obtusifolia Raf.

Conservation status: 
W1; S2S3, G4G5Q.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Infrequent. Sep–Oct; Oct–Nov. Thornhill 1083, 1264 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 471 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell

Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Aug–Oct; Sep–Nov. Thornhill 45, 1116, 1134, 1139, 1201 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 522 (WNC!); Sandy Run [Neck]: Wilbur 57644, 57662 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Agalinis setacea (J.F. Gmel.) Raf.

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T).
Notes: 
Sep–Oct; Oct–Nov. Reported from Shaken Creek by LeBlond (2000), but no specimens have been seen by the senior author. [= RAB, Weakley]

Agalinis virgata Raf.

Conservation status: 
SR-P; S2, G3G4Q.
Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Sep–Oct; Oct–Nov. Reported from Sandy Run by LeBlond and Weakley (1991), but no specimens have been seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. [= RAB, Weakley]

Pedicularis canadensis L.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Apr–May; May–Jul. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 577 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Seymeria cassioides (J.F. Gmel.) S.F. Blake

Distribution: 
Wet pine flatwoods (WPF-T), wet pine savannas (SPS-T, SPS-RF, WLPS, VWLPS).
Notes: 
Frequent. Aug–Oct. Thornhill 28, 33, 1048 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Neck]: Taggart SARU 502 (WNC!); Wilbur 57650 (DUKE!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Parnassiaceae

Parnassia caroliniana Michx.

Conservation status: 
State T, FSC; S2, G3.
Distribution: 
Wet pine savannas (WLPS, VWLPS), particularly along margins of adjacent swamps.
Notes: 
Frequent. Sep–Nov(–Dec). Thornhill 48, 1175 (NCSC). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run: Taggart SARU 529 (WNC!). [= RAB, Weakley]

Phrymaceae

Mimulus ringens var. ringens L.

Distribution: 
Pine savannas.
Notes: 
Jun–Sep. Not seen in Shaken Creek Preserve by the senior author. Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Haw’s Run]: Taggart SARU 453 (WNC!). [< M. ringens L. sensu RAB; = Weakley]